Flashcards in IT152_Lecture_05_Design_Principles_2013a Deck (115):
basic standards of design.
Designs should be...?
cohesive and functional
Design must be...?
user-centered, not designer-centered
user wants and needs.
Design strategy should be...?
solid; simple, easily understood, easy to use.
Web site or title should be...?
Users should know where they are and..?
where they can go.
Home page indicates what is...?
contained in site and how to navigate.
Principles based on...?
design guidelines, target audience, content, type of Web site/ title.
Two broad categories of design guidelines...?
Superb visual design and high editorial standards inspire...?
Design guidelines related to overall appearance of product include...?
- Balanced layout
- Colour scheme
figurative representation that links content of site/ title to established mental model
E-commerce metaphor is...?
electronic shopping cart
Metaphors must be...?
Metaphor must be consistent with...?
Web site’s / application content
Metaphors must be appropriate; otherwise, they...?
mislead and confuse user.
Metaphor should reinforce the message...?
appeal to the target audience without detracting from content.
Consistency is an essential component of...?
Web site / CD app.
Consistency applies to both..?
appearance and navigation scheme
Navigation bar remains consistent from...?
One page to the next.
Precise layout indicating where various elements will appear on the page
Dictate positions of various elements
- Graphics, Heading, Menu, Text, Navigation bar.
Templates can aid the design process in several ways...?
- Provide consistency
- Shorten development time
- Prevent "Object shift"
- Templates that utilize grids can prevents objects from shifting.
All multimedia elements (text, graphics, animation, sound, and video) should...?
complement content, and not be the focus.
Major considerations in designing site is determining...?
- What content
- How many levels users must navigate.
With content less text is...?
Excess content requires...?
More levels add to ...?
confusion and frustration for user.
Reduce levels by providing..?
hyperlinks (also called links)
Make sure content always...?
Users do not read a Web page; they...?
scan it, looking for keywords/links.
First-time visitors to a web site generally spend less than...?
60 seconds on the Web page.
Web sites must capture...?
text is still the primary element used to...?
Text must be readable.
Always test your...?
colour and background combinations.
Links or hyperlinks replace part of the original web page with...?
Links or Hyperlinks give users frame of reference, allowing users to...?
return quickly to previously viewed page.
Links or hyperlinks allow designers to...?
keep text on each page to a minimum.
Balance in Web page design refers to...?
the distribution of optical weight in the layout.
Optical weight is the ability of an...?
element to attract the user's eye.
Each element has optical weight as...?
determined by its nature and size.
Nature of an element refers to...?
its shape, colour, brightness, type.
Balance determined by the...?
weight of the elements and their position on the Web page.
Three types of balance...?
- symmetrical balance
- asymmetrical balance
- no balance.
arranging elements as mirrored images on both sides of a center line.
Symmetrical design is...?
Symmetrical balance suggests order and...?
Symmetrical balance is appropriate to highlight...?
corporate image of conservative organizations.
arranging non-identical elements on both sides of a center line.
Asymmetrical design is dynamic...?
suggests diversity and informality.
Asymmetrical Balance might be appropriate for...?
entertainment Web sites for a feeling of movement and discovery.
Do not forget white space...?
the blank areas on a page where text and other elements are not found.
Blank space does not have to be...?
space between elements.
Movement relates to how...?
the user's eye moves through the elements on the page.
Optical center is a point somewhat above the...?
physical center of the page.
As designers for a global community, critical to include...?
visual clues such as arrows that help direct the viewers' movement on the page.
Movement: To have user work through content in more structured way...?
- Control where user starts on page
- Use lines or objects that point the user in a certain direction.
- Use colour gradients that go from light shade to dark shade
- Have people or animals look in the direction the user should look
- Emphasize an element; make it a different shape or colour, surround it with white space, use a different font or type style, create borders, or use different backgrounds for selected objects
Colour scheme is a ...?
powerful communication tool.
Wrong colours may...?
communicate the wrong message.
emotion and associations.
Adding colour changes...?
the look of the pages without adding to file size.
Colour schemes increase ...?
Colour schemes improve...?
Colour signals changes in...?
Fewer colours create a ...?
cleaner, more tasteful look.
Design with a...?
monochromatic colour scheme.
Easier to work with....?
dark objects on light backgrounds.
Web authoring programs include...?
preset colour schemes.
colour schemes, and consist of unified design elements for bullets, fonts, images.
Keep site fresh and...?
Internal and external links must be...?
Web pages need to be more...?
freestanding than pages in print.
Single web page may be only..?
page viewed by users.
For consistency, include basic information on each page...?
- Contact information
- Last modified date
- Copyright notice
- Link to home page
- A Frequently Asked Question page can be helpful.
Two types of Unity...?
Intra-page unity: how the various page elements relate
Inter-page unity: interactive design that users encounter as they navigate from one Web page to another
Maintain consistency in..?
shapes, colours, text styles, themes.
In games or entertainment sites...?
unified design may be too dull.
common metaphor, colour scheme, navigation method from page to page.
Developers must design..?
the site's interactivity.
Interactive design must be user centered...?
If sound is played, user should be able to adjust volume
User to decide to play a video or download a plug-in
User interface is...?
When designing the user interface, you are...?
establishing the foundation of the Web site / application
Interface gives users direct...?
control over the Web site / application
Metaphors, images and...?
Impossible to fully separate design from..?
function in interactive sites.
Users expect function and sophistication from ..?
Navigational structure should be..?
transparent to user.
users must know...?
where they are within overall structure of the site.
Users want quick and...?
easy access to the content of the site.
It should be easy to return to..?
home page or other major pages.
Users will not tolerate...?
Research shows threshold of frustration for any computer-related task is about...?
To improve download time...?
optimize graphics and use thumbnails.
Broadband connections and improved compression and streaming have made...?
multimedia possible on Web, but download speed is still a major issue in Web page design.
Keep page size smaller than...?
Users favor menus with minimum of...?
five to nine links.
Users favor a few Web pages with...?
lots of choices.
Additional links through....?
hot spots, mouseovers.
Goal is to provide users with the information they want...?
Fewest number of steps
Shortest amount of time
Using least amount of screen real estate
Web based on ...?
cross-linking or cross referencing.
By establishing a clearly identified page of external links, users will not...?
unknowingly leave your site.
Open external links in...?
separate browser window.
Contextual clues for user include...?
Familiar and intuitive icons
A common colour scheme
Consistent method of navigation
Consistent approach to layout reinforces user's sense of...?
Avoid long introductions of...?
automatically scrolling text, narration, music, credits.
Provide a way to skip or escape...?
Provide way for user to...?
control the playing of animations, sound, video.
Give users an opportunity to establish an...?
ongoing relationship with company or organization.
Users need to be able to...?
communicate with company or organization online.
Many people have disabilities that prevent them from...?
taking advantage of media elements.
Many visual impaired individuals use a...?
text-based web browser.
(For them to take advantage of your content, include alternative text.