IT152_Lecture_05_Design_Principles_2013a Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IT152_Lecture_05_Design_Principles_2013a Deck (115):
1

Use...?

basic standards of design.

2

Designs should be...?

cohesive and functional

3

Key is...?

planning phase.

4

Design must be...?

user-centered, not designer-centered

5

Focus on...?

user wants and needs.

6

Design strategy should be...?

solid; simple, easily understood, easy to use.

7

Web site or title should be...?

intuitive.

8

Users should know where they are and..?

where they can go.

9

Home page indicates what is...?

contained in site and how to navigate.

10

Principles based on...?

design guidelines, target audience, content, type of Web site/ title.

11

Two broad categories of design guidelines...?

Appearance
Interactivity.

12

Superb visual design and high editorial standards inspire...?

confidence.

13

Design guidelines related to overall appearance of product include...?

- Metaphor
- Consistency
- Template
- Content
- Balanced layout
- Movement
- Colour scheme
- Independence
- Functionality
- Unity

14

Metaphor...?

figurative representation that links content of site/ title to established mental model

15

E-commerce metaphor is...?

electronic shopping cart

16

Metaphors must be...?

concrete, obvious.

17

Metaphor must be consistent with...?

Web site’s / application content

18

Metaphors must be appropriate; otherwise, they...?

mislead and confuse user.

19

Metaphor should reinforce the message...?

appeal to the target audience without detracting from content.

20

Consistency is an essential component of...?

Web site / CD app.

21

Consistency applies to both..?

appearance and navigation scheme

22

Navigation bar remains consistent from...?

One page to the next.

23

Template...?

Precise layout indicating where various elements will appear on the page

24

Templates should...?

Dictate positions of various elements

- Graphics, Heading, Menu, Text, Navigation bar.

25

Templates can aid the design process in several ways...?

- Provide consistency
- Shorten development time
- Prevent "Object shift"
- Templates that utilize grids can prevents objects from shifting.

26

All multimedia elements (text, graphics, animation, sound, and video) should...?

complement content, and not be the focus.

27

Major considerations in designing site is determining...?

- What content
- How many levels users must navigate.

28

With content less text is...?

usually better.

29

Excess content requires...?

more levels.

30

More levels add to ...?

confusion and frustration for user.

31

Reduce levels by providing..?

hyperlinks (also called links)

32

Make sure content always...?

accessible.

33

Users do not read a Web page; they...?

scan it, looking for keywords/links.

34

First-time visitors to a web site generally spend less than...?

60 seconds on the Web page.

35

Web sites must capture...?

visitor's interest.

36

text is still the primary element used to...?

convey information.
Text must be readable.

37

Always test your...?

colour and background combinations.

38

Links or hyperlinks replace part of the original web page with...?

new content.

39

Links or Hyperlinks give users frame of reference, allowing users to...?

return quickly to previously viewed page.

40

Links or hyperlinks allow designers to...?

keep text on each page to a minimum.

41

Balance in Web page design refers to...?

the distribution of optical weight in the layout.

42

Optical weight is the ability of an...?

element to attract the user's eye.

43

Each element has optical weight as...?

determined by its nature and size.

44

Nature of an element refers to...?

its shape, colour, brightness, type.

45

Balance determined by the...?

weight of the elements and their position on the Web page.

46

Three types of balance...?

- symmetrical balance
- asymmetrical balance
- no balance.

47

Symmetrical balance...?

arranging elements as mirrored images on both sides of a center line.

48

Symmetrical design is...?

static.

49

Symmetrical balance suggests order and...?

formality.

50

Symmetrical balance is appropriate to highlight...?

corporate image of conservative organizations.

51

Asymmetrical balance...?

arranging non-identical elements on both sides of a center line.

52

Asymmetrical design is dynamic...?

suggests diversity and informality.

53

Asymmetrical Balance might be appropriate for...?

entertainment Web sites for a feeling of movement and discovery.

54

Do not forget white space...?

the blank areas on a page where text and other elements are not found.

55

Blank space does not have to be...?

white

56

Users like...?

space between elements.

57

Movement relates to how...?

the user's eye moves through the elements on the page.

58

Optical center is a point somewhat above the...?

physical center of the page.

59

As designers for a global community, critical to include...?

visual clues such as arrows that help direct the viewers' movement on the page.

60

Movement: To have user work through content in more structured way...?

- Control where user starts on page
- Use lines or objects that point the user in a certain direction.
- Use colour gradients that go from light shade to dark shade
- Have people or animals look in the direction the user should look
- Emphasize an element; make it a different shape or colour, surround it with white space, use a different font or type style, create borders, or use different backgrounds for selected objects

61

Colour scheme is a ...?

powerful communication tool.

62

Wrong colours may...?

communicate the wrong message.

63

Colour evokes...?

emotion and associations.

64

Adding colour changes...?

the look of the pages without adding to file size.

65

Colour schemes increase ...?

visual appeal.

66

Colour schemes improve...?

readability.

67

Colour signals changes in...?

context.

68

Fewer colours create a ...?

cleaner, more tasteful look.

69

Design with a...?

monochromatic colour scheme.

70

Easier to work with....?

dark objects on light backgrounds.

71

Web authoring programs include...?

preset colour schemes.

72

Themes contain...?

colour schemes, and consist of unified design elements for bullets, fonts, images.

73

Keep site fresh and...?

functional.

74

Internal and external links must be...?

maintained.

75

Web pages need to be more...?

freestanding than pages in print.

76

Single web page may be only..?

page viewed by users.

77

For consistency, include basic information on each page...?

- Contact information
- Last modified date
- Copyright notice
- Link to home page
- A Frequently Asked Question page can be helpful.

78

Two types of Unity...?

Intra-page unity: how the various page elements relate
Inter-page unity: interactive design that users encounter as they navigate from one Web page to another

79

Maintain consistency in..?

shapes, colours, text styles, themes.

80

In games or entertainment sites...?

unified design may be too dull.

81

Users appreciate...?

common metaphor, colour scheme, navigation method from page to page.

82

Developers must design..?

the site's interactivity.

83

Interactive design must be user centered...?

If sound is played, user should be able to adjust volume
User to decide to play a video or download a plug-in

84

User interface is...?

crucial

85

When designing the user interface, you are...?

establishing the foundation of the Web site / application

86

Interface gives users direct...?

control over the Web site / application

87

Metaphors, images and...?

Concepts

88

Impossible to fully separate design from..?

function in interactive sites.

89

Users expect function and sophistication from ..?

all interfaces.

90

Navigational structure should be..?

transparent to user.

91

users must know...?

where they are within overall structure of the site.

92

Users want quick and...?

easy access to the content of the site.

93

It should be easy to return to..?

home page or other major pages.

94

Users will not tolerate...?

delay.

95

Research shows threshold of frustration for any computer-related task is about...?

10 seconds.

96

To improve download time...?

optimize graphics and use thumbnails.

97

Broadband connections and improved compression and streaming have made...?

multimedia possible on Web, but download speed is still a major issue in Web page design.

98

Keep page size smaller than...?

100k

99

Users favor menus with minimum of...?

five to nine links.

100

Users favor a few Web pages with...?

lots of choices.

101

Additional links through....?

hot spots, mouseovers.

102

Goal is to provide users with the information they want...?

Fewest number of steps
Shortest amount of time
Using least amount of screen real estate

103

Web based on ...?

cross-linking or cross referencing.

104

By establishing a clearly identified page of external links, users will not...?

unknowingly leave your site.

105

Open external links in...?

separate browser window.

106

Contextual clues for user include...?

Familiar and intuitive icons
A common colour scheme
Consistent method of navigation
Graphic similarity

107

Consistent approach to layout reinforces user's sense of...?

context.

108

Avoid long introductions of...?

automatically scrolling text, narration, music, credits.

109

Provide a way to skip or escape...?

introductory elements.

110

Provide way for user to...?

control the playing of animations, sound, video.

111

Give users an opportunity to establish an...?

ongoing relationship with company or organization.

112

Users need to be able to...?

communicate with company or organization online.

113

Many people have disabilities that prevent them from...?

taking advantage of media elements.

114

Many visual impaired individuals use a...?

text-based web browser.

(For them to take advantage of your content, include alternative text.

115

In the US there are laws in place that require...?

Websites that receive federal funding to be accessible by people with disabilities.