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A series of still images played back fast enough to trick our minds into believing that there is movement

Examples: a moving or changing graphic image, blinking text, rotating logos, animated icons, Web buttons,action figures,etc


Virtual worlds created by animated objects has physical properties including ...?

height, width, depth, time.


Used appropriately, animation can be an...?

integral part of a Web site.


How does animation work...?

Animations exist because of the trait of persistence of vision where the object seen remains mapped on the retina for a short time after you see it. This is referred to as phi.


Introduction: Creation:
Planning is important to ensure the animation is ...?

appropriate and well conceived.


Introduction Creation:
Storyboards help...?

visualize the multimedia Web site.


Introduction: Creation:
An animation specialist is responsible for creating....?

the animation on the Web site.


Animation Skills.....?

A feel for movement and timing is essential to produce convincing animation, and Animators need creative and artistic qualities, along with plenty of patience. For character animation, good drawing and animation experience combined with observational skills and acting talent are all very important. Animators must be able to take direction and work as part of a team. They should also be organised, pay attention to detail and have the capacity to communicate clearly with colleagues.


Animations can be used to.../

1. Catch the eye - direct attention
2. Entertain or motivate
3. Distract and annoy!
4. Instruct or educate.


Use animations carefully and sparingly to...?

achieve greatest impact.


Drawing attention to something of no use is an example of an...?

ineffective and negative application of animation.


Complex concepts can be simplified and can use animation to...?

visualize each concept.


Animation offer a better instructional tool than ...?

- Easy to understand, more cost-effective and also creates smaller file size.


Animations are an excellent way to increase...?

appeal of Web sites and ensure return visits.


May websites use animation geared toward...?

entertaining kids as they learn.


Adobe flash allows web pages to run...?

animations with small file size.


Animation must be design to be appropriate to...?

the application and geared toward users of the site.


Animation Guidelines...?

1. Animations should impact not detract
2. Animate what you want users to notice
3. Animation must be appropriate to mood and content of the application
4. Not too many animated objects per page (1 is usually enough)

5. Animation that does the same thing over and over is annoying
- Never include a permanently moving animation on a content page since it will make it very hard for your users to concentrate on reading the text
6. Use transitions and special effects that help communicate message
7. Make sure animation loads quickly


Commercial animation is an expensive drawn-out process that requires...?

lots of time, expertise and management.


Two rates used to measure animation...?

Sampling and Playback.


Sampling rate...?

number of different images that occur per second.


Playback rate...?

number of frames displayed per second when animation is being viewed. This may be set by the user.


Playback rate cannot be higher than...?

the sampling rate.


About 12-16 fps needed for...?

smooth framerate.


Frame- based animation also called...?

cel animation.


Computer-based cel animation: based on changes that...?

occur from one frame to the next.


Prior to computer-generated animation, artists drew cel or frame needed to...?

create the illusion of movement.



Special technique that uses frames to create the illusion of one object changing into another


Morphing on the Web generally uses...?

process called shape tweening.



Process of drawing 'between' frames; requires keyframes.


Path based animation, also known as...?

vector animation.


Path based animation involves the creation of...?

one object and a path; then tweening is used to fill in the frames as the object moves along the path.


Computational animation...?

move object by varying coordinates.


Program- or Script-based Animation:
Involves use of...?

programming/scripting languages to create animation.


Program or Script-based Animation:
Animations are often more flexible than...?

those crated using the other methods.


Stop motion...?

is an animation technique which makes static objects appear to move.


Stop motion is similar to...?

clay animation techniques used on earlier Sinbad style films and films as Chicken Run and all of the Wallace and Gromit films.


Stop motion requires a camera..?

either motion picture or digital, that can expose single frames.


Stop motion words by...?

by shooting a single frame, stopping the camera to move the object a little bit, and then shooting another frame. When the film runs continuously at 24 frames per second, the illusion of fluid motion is created and the objects appear to move by themselves. This is similar to the animation of cartoons, but with real objects instead of drawings.


3-D animation is the foundation of ...?

many multimedia games and adventure Web sites.


Creating 3-D animation is considerably more complex than...?

creating 2-D animation.


Animating 3-D images and objects may involve...?

frame-based, cell-based, or program-based animation to change the object's shape or position.


Changing light, perspective, and camera angle assists in...?

creating the illusion of animation in a 3-D world.


Special Animation Effects:
Onion Skinning...?

Create new images by tracing over an existing image and allows users to see several frames at once.


Special Animation Effects:
Trail effect...?

when Image from the previous frame is not completely erased so that it appears in the new frame.



giving objects attributes such as colours, surface textures, and opacity
- .The rendering can take a lot of time on an ordinary home computer. Photorealistic animation would be impractical in this context.


Special Animation Effects:

Similar to morphing but a single image used.


Special Animation Effects:

More than one object.


Virtual reality, used to describe...?

3-D scenes on the Web that surround user to become part of the experience.


Using Virtual reality, Web developers are able to create 3-D objects that users can.../

manipulate with a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, or joystick.


Animation Equipment:
Professional animators of movies, etc make photorealistic animation with high detail. This level of quality would take...?

10-100 of years to create on a home PC.


Animation Equipment:
Professional Use...?

- A large number of workstations (known as a render farm) networked together. The result is a computer animated movie that can be completed in about one to five years (this process is not comprised solely of rendering, however). A workstation typically costs several thousands of $.
- Pixar’s Renderman is rendering software which is widely used in the movie animation industry. It can be bought at Pixar for about $5000 to $8000.
- an animation program such as Maya or Massive
- digital movie cameras, motion capture or performance capture, bluescreens, film editing software, props, and other tools for movie animation.


Equipment: animation software...?
Some examples of animation software are.../

Poser(3D), Bryce, Maya, Blender, TrueSpace(3D), 3D Studio Max (3D) and Flash (2D), Massive.


Examples of animation software:

- Combines both bitmap- and vector-editing tools within single environment
- Allows you to import files from digital cameras, scanners, and other graphics applications
- is designed specifically for web-based graphics, with somewhat limited print-based capabilities.


Animation software: examples
Adobe flash...?

- Vast majority of animations seen on the Web created using Flash
- Allows you to work with vector graphics to create incredibly smooth, compact animation

- Can import artwork from drawing programs such as Adobe Illustrator and FreeHand
- Flash uses a timeline for development and control
- Flash has a built-in scripting language: ActionScript


Animation software, Examples:
Adobe ImageReady* (discontinued)

Dropped in 2007 from CS3 on, and now done in Photoshop animation window.

- Packaged with Adobe Photoshop until 2007; Specifically designed for editing bitmaps and limited vector editing
- Similar to Fireworks in producing superior Web graphics and animation with the smallest possible file sizes; better than Fireworks for print
- Allows developers to creative interactive elements without writing code


Animation software examples:

- Sometimes free of charge, or small fee for delivery
- Must follow license conditions
- Create animated banners and signs, apply special effects such as transitions and spins, rotate, crop, colour-adjust, and resize


Animated File Formats:
Animated GIFS...?

- When viewed on the Web, the multiple images are streamed, or played back one at a time
- Animated GIFs require no plug-ins or players and are supported by all major browsers and are very small


Animated File Formats:
SWF Format...?

- Designed for efficient graphic delivery over the Web
- Files are small, support streaming so they can be delivered over a network with limited bandwidth
- To view SWF files, Flash Player must be installed on user’s computer


Animated File Formats:
QuickTime (MOV)....?

- Apple’s animation and movie file format
- Non-platform specific
- Can be either downloaded or streamed for quicker viewing
- QuickTime player needed to view QuickTime files


Animated File Formats:

- Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
- Created standards for interactive animation and video
- MPEG files are much smaller compared to other coding formats
- Much higher quality for the size


Animated file format:

- Audio Video Interleave format (AVI)
- Microsoft’s animation and movie file format for Windows
- Quality is adequate, but do not offer some of the features and cross-platform compatibility found in other formats
- Files may take longer to download


Animated File Formats:

- Multiple Image Network Graphics
- Similar to animated GIF; this format stores multiple images that are then streamed for quick download and playback.
- Plug-in required
- Offers advantages over GIF format
- Supports multiple levels of transparency


Animation File Formats:
CGI Computer Generated Imagery...?

- is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects.
- allows the creation of images without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props.
- E.g. Lord of the Rings, Avatar
- Weta and Dr Mark Sagar won a Technical Academy Award (Feb. 2010)


Animation Job Titles...?

- Modeller
- Animator
- Painter
- Technical Director…etc


Where animation Jobs are...?

- CD-ROM Design
- Game Design
- Web Design
- Simulations
- Film and TV Effects, Characters & Props
- Location-based entertainment (like the Spiderman Ride in Florida,… )


How to get Animation Jobs ....?

- Don't wait till you have the optimum package and hardware. Start NOW!
- Learn the concepts of 3D - you can apply them no matter what software or hardware you use.
- Learn how to model - or buy models or use free models from the web if model making is not your strength
- Learn the principles of animation such as drawing
- Practice!
- Create a 1-5 minute animation reel
- Improve your teamwork skills and experience


You will find animated content on...?

television, in feature films, commercials, websites and computer or video games. Although it is not essential to have completed a course at art school or film school, it is immensely helpful and desirable to employers.


The Animation Sector can be roughly divided into four main disciplines:

- 2D drawn or traditional;
- 2D computer generated
- stop frame; and
- 3D computer generated.
Most companies will concentrate on one discipline and but some studios do all four.


Animation Jobs...?

There are a wide range of freelance, some contract, and some more permanent jobs in animation. These can be found at small production companies, larger studios, computer generated post production facility houses and at computer games developers or interactive media designers.