IT152_Lecture_06_Authoring_2013a Flashcards Preview

New Multimedia > IT152_Lecture_06_Authoring_2013a > Flashcards

Flashcards in IT152_Lecture_06_Authoring_2013a Deck (54):

Sound editing tools...?

such as Goldwave, Audacity, Audition


Animation tools...?

such as, Flash, Blender, Silverlight


Internet optimizing tools...?

such as Fireworks, Illustrator


Video Editing Tools...?

such as Premiere, Pinnacle, Movie Maker.


Presentation software ...?

(e.g. PowerPoint)
Are visual tools that do not require prog’g or scripting
Create slide-shows, kiosks or projected presentations
Very limited features and customization, low technical skills required


Electronic Document software...?

Translates documents into a standard format
Limited interaction and control of sound,video,timing


On-line publishing tools....?

(MS ExpressionWeb, Dreamweaver)
Designed for ‘net’, limited interaction/control of media


Graphic Design tools...?

- Image-editing tools dedicated to produce bitmap images such as Photoshop, PSP, Painter, Fireworks
- Drawing Software dedicated to produce Vector-based line art for High Resolution printed paper
- Tools such as FreeHand, Illustrator, Designer


3D modelling...?

software to create more life-like images and scenes such as Maya, Infini-D, 3D StudioMax, Blender


Authoring Tools....?

that put content together such as Director, Authorware, Flash, Opus


What is Authoring?

The process of creating a software application without the need to use computer programming.

These tools like Flash are used primarily to put content together from other applications such as Photoshop
- authoring tools like Flash give little control over interaction with the computer’s memory, file system, and sometimes you may need to use a programming language such as C

Web-based and CD-ROM multimedia software are also referred to as authoring tools.


How is authoring different to programming?

1. Easier to develop content
2. Authoring tools usually give the programmer fine control over the object and produce smaller executable files
3. Program development time is often extended over authoring.

Many authoring tools also have their own scripting language to help customise the actions and events. e.g. Lingo in Director, or Action Script in Flash


Advantage of Using Authoring programs:
Convenient/Time Saving...?

- Little or no programming is required to generate multimedia software applications. The program writes code for you
- don’t need to know markup language such as XHTML
- It can take about 10-15% of the time taken as opposed to programming


Advantage of Using Authoring Programs:
Immediate Results...?

More time spent on creativity, not coding


What Authoring skills do you need....?

- Most industry users expect you to learn a range of tools rather than know one in-depth
- This is becoming more important as leading players produce their own tools such as those used by Pixar
- Lots of people are self-taught in standard tools which often means they do not understand principles and work inefficiently*
- Highly-paid skills sought after in scripting and programming languages such as Lingo (used in Director), proprietary software (used by Pixar)Java, and C/C++ , ActionScript / JavaScript

*has effect of depressing pay rates for basic tools such as Flash .


What do Authoring Programs Do:
Produce limited content with...?

paint, text, and animation tools.


What do Authoring Programs Do:
Design screen layout...?

using templates


What do Authoring Programs Do:
Create interactivity i.e.....?

Involving the user.


What do Authoring Programs Do:

text, sound, video, animation, and graphics from other apps.


What do Authoring Programs Do:



Authoring software are optimized to produce at least one of the following output types....?

- presentations e.g PowerPoint
- prototypes, simulations
- animations and games e.g Flash
- interactive kiosks (public display)
- interactive training (CBTs) e.g Authorware
- interactive TV application
- consumer title (CD-ROM/DVD/CD-I) eg Director
- Web sites e.g: Dreamweaver , Expression Web


Presentation software ....?

(e.g. PowerPoint)
- Are visual tools that do not require prog’g or scripting
- Create slide-shows, kiosks or projected presentations
- Limited features and customization, low technical skills required


Electronic Document software....?

- Translates documents into a standard format
- Limited interaction and control of sound,video,timing


Web publishing tools....?

(Expression Web, Dreamweaver)
Designed for ‘net’, limited interaction/control of media


Low- Med end authoring tools...?

(Opus, Flash)
- Interactivity varies, fast development, easy to use
- Increasingly easy and powerful
- Relatively cheap
- Flash CS and Opus Pro (8.02) ($ 475/175US )
- ( Educational site licensing makes this a very cost effective tool)


High-end authoring tool...?

- Complex and costly these are used for highly interactive consumer /education titles
- expensive (>$1,000)
Flash Pro $1300


Opus Pro is a....?

quick, cost effective tool providing fast track development of interactive applications at all levels. Quick enough to make simple prototypes but powerful enough for full blown applications and database front ends. It is useful not just for multimedia authoring but also for producing stylish modern applications of all kinds.
It is both powerful and easy to use, allowing you to create stunning interactive applications and multimedia quickly. It will save you time and money on existing work and open up new revenue opportunities.
Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats such as; Web, CD Rom, stand-alone .exe files, DVD-video or Macromedia Flash® format media presentations. With a ready-made setup program if required and write direct to CD or DVD (requires Nero 6 or above). Makes it easy to develop one set of resources that can be re-used for different output formats.


Offline tools...?

Different tools used for offline(CD,DVD) and online authoring

More care required in the production of CD’s and DVD’s than Web authoring.
- Once burned you can’t undo the errors.
- Expensive to master a CD for reproducing
- Pay rates good for experienced and skilled developers
- Cross platform requires separate applications to be created eg MAC and PC


Web tools...?

Platform is more forgiving, updates are easy
- Ability to fix the typo or applet and re-post on the server
- Pay rates flat due to wide existing/growing skill-base

Media elements need much more work to reduce their size to be usable

Convergence in technologies may eventually allow performance to be closer to CD or DVD?
- Monitoring performance overheads are very important for web development .

Usually less interactivity

Often problems with plug-ins that restrict function


Web tools example: Dreamweaver

- Supports cross-browser validation
- Quickly build and format tables
- Site Setup Wizard to speed start
- Can use integrated HTML editors
- Supports CSS
- Supports site-management


Web tools example: Expression Web

Replacement for MS FrontPage and challenger for Adobe Dreamweaver

Web site creation and management tool version 4 (2010)
Code Editor
CSS Design Suite
Visual Diagnostics for Debugging
Support for Industry-standards
Web Standards Support
Dynamic Interactive Sites
Search Engine Optimization Reporting
Publishing flexibility
Import Photoshop Files


Authoring tools operate using different paradigms or metaphors....?

A metaphor describes a comparison: a metaphor states that B substitutes for A such has a Windows desktop substitutes for a real desk


3 main types of metaphors used by authoring tools are:

1. Book metaphor -Cards and Stacks, Slide Examples: PowerPoint, Hypercard, Toolbook, Opus
2. Flowchart metaphor - Icons and Diagrams
Examples: IconAuthor, Authorware
3. Stage metaphor - Time and Sequences
Director, Flash


Book and Card Stack Metaphors...?

- Metaphor easy to understand Easy to use
- Each screen/element is a page of a book or a card

Good for:
- Subjects that will be read like a book. Sequential content. Large amount of content. Reference works

- Not cross-platform
- Weak production tools , Limited range of features

E.g. HyperCard: =card stack. ToolBook, Opus : =book

Also includes ‘Slide Shows’
Slide Show example =PowerPoint
- designed to create linear presentations with some non-linear jumping and branching ability
- Simple but quick!
- Uses a slide page /book metaphor approach
- Each screen is a page
- Also now capable of non-linear interactivity
- Narrows the gap between linear slideshow and multimedia presentation development tools


Book metaphor example = ToolBook ...?

- Toolbook uses a Book metaphor for organisation
- Extends it with Object-oriented tools
- Each object on the production has its own collection of properties that you can manipulate


Book metaphor example 2 = Illuminatus Opus or Opus Pro 7 ₤140 sterling * ....?

Opus (current version 7.x)
- Uses a book metaphor
- Component Library
- Drawing tools
- Pre-programmed objects
- Quick and relatively easy to produce interactive applications
- Used to save considerable authoring time


Flowchart Metaphors...?

- Icons are placed in a flowchart. Event driven
- Each icon represents a program event

Clear structure,visual
Easy editing and updating
Can be used for: Computer Based Training and ELearning (lots of branching pathways/feedback) /interaction

Hard to learn, less intuitive

Authorware, IconAuthor

These tools allow for complex branching
- Provides users choice over where they want to go.
- Hierarchical organisation of the applications content with links between one topic and related topics
- Used for training/education


Example of Flowchart metaphor: Authorware 7

- Uses Flowchart metaphor and Icons
- See the big picture when authoring ability to make large-scale changes in links and direction.
- Focus on one discrete element of the application at a time
- Linear tendency
- Ideal tool for educational titles
(Adobe has discontinued development of Authorware)


Stage metaphors...?

- The developer creates a “movie”
- User controls branching to different frames

- Good for animations, Subjects that are time-based (e.g. weather, stories)
- Cross-platform

- Harder to learn
- Expensive



Stage-based example: Director 11.5

- Timeline, Theatre, or movie production, metaphor
- It allows users to build applications built on a movie metaphor, with the user as the "director" of the movie.
- Design each frame of the movie that will play back at a set number of frames per second
- Cast members are arranged in the score and displayed on the stage
- Behaviours can be applied to elements in the project to make them interact
- Theatre, or movie production, metaphor
- Cast, score, and paint windows


Object manipulation...?

Usually found in games, educational applications and simulations

Allow users to drag and drop elements of the programme on screen


Spatial Environments...?

Simulate 3-D of the real-world

The gaming industry has excelled here!

Use 3D engines to provide movement through their virtual environments (Quake, Trespasser etc).


How Do You Choose an Authoring Program?

There is no ‘ideal’ package. It is just a matter of finding the best fit for your needs

Use the following criteria:
Ease of use
Price and license
User acceptance
Compatibility with hardware/software
Learning curve

Authoring Features (tools)
Plug-ins needed?
Platform (Mac and/or PC) for development and playback
Deliverability over the Internet
Media editing tools (paint, animation,etc)
Programming language?
visual prog’g?, scripting, standard prog’g lang?
Performance tuning
Delivery options (CD, DVD, Mobile capability)

De-bugging facility?
Direct access to operating systems?
I.e. Can it call DLLs and the MCI device drivers?
Network support?
Built-in mm database?
Database front end to call up SQL data?
organising features
project man. Tool?


Authoring tool: CS6.x

- Adobe Creative Suite released in 2007 is a collection of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications made by Adobe Systems.
- CS6 comes in different combinations called "editions”
- Master Collection CS6 is NZ $5038 approx
- Design Premium NZ $3683
- Adobe® Creative Suite® 6 Design Premium software is the toolkit for print, web, and mobile publishing.
- Adobe® InDesign® CS6 for page layout,
- Photoshop® CS6 is a raster graphics editor
- Illustrator® CS6for vector graphics creation,
- Flash® CS6 Professional for interactive design,
- Dreamweaver® CS6 for web design and development,
- Acrobat® 9 Professional for Adobe PDF workflows.


Authoring tool: Flash

- "Flash" can refer to the authoring environment, the player or the application files
- Flash Professional, is a multimedia authoring program used to add animation and create web applications, games, movies, and content for mobile phones .
- It features support for vector and raster graphics, a scripting language called ActionScript and bi-directional streaming of audio and video.

Flash Player is a virtual machine to run -Flash files.
- Flash files, traditionally called "flash movies", usually have a .swf file extension and may be an object of a web page
- ActionScript, is a scripting language which has syntax similar to JavaScript but a much different prog. framework
- is used for all of the interactivity (buttons, text entry fields, pick lists) seen in many Flash applications.

- The use of vector graphics (like PostScript, SVG and PDF)—especially when combined with program code—allows Flash files to translate to small file sizes which take less bandwidth
- In many cases, Flash is a very attractive solution for delivering mixed content. If the content is purely one format (such as text, video or audio), other alternatives may provide better outcome.

- due to wide usage of Flash in web ads, tools have emerged for blocking Flash content in some or all web sites, or temporarily or permanently turning Flash Player off,
- Flash-based content unsuitable for indexing by search engines. However, this problem can be alleviated
- The Flash Player has a long history of security flaws that expose computers to remote attacks
- Not all users have up to date Flash Player installed*


Authoring tool: Director

Is a proven multimedia tool for building rich interactive content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks.

Most CDROM s and DVDs use Director —such as learning applications, corporate demonstrations, and games.

Director's functionality can be extended through plug-in applications called Xtras. These can be created by users or purchased from third party vendors.
Will ensure smooth playback, even when using long files or videos, with Director’s advanced memory management. see

Makes content more engaging by incorporating most (40+) major media formats including DVD-Video, RealMedia, QuickTime, and Macromedia Flash, as well as audio, bitmap, and 3D formats.

Makes it possible to integrate without re-encoding files. It also supports vector graphics and 3D interactivity, which can be used for producing games.

Now uses JavaScript and Lingo scripting languages
Creates sophisticated interactivity
Saves production time without need for rewriting code, reducing scripting and editing time


Flash Vs Director:

- Flash has a better interface than Director for animation.
- Director has ability to retain perfect synchronization (for audio especially). - Flash's synchronization ability is more limited.
- Director supports multiple inputs such as joysticks and multi-button mouse.


Flash Vs Director:

- Flash is ideally suited as a vector-only tool. Although raster graphics can be included.
- Director excels in the display and management of raster graphics.


Flash Vs Director:

- The big advantage of Director is that it's fully extensible. Not only do built-in features let you interact with the user's computer
- but support for custom code (called Xtras) extend Director's capabilities infinitely. In this way Director is superior to Flash


Flash Vs Director:

- Flash also has a very fast start up time BUT Flash is slower. The entire "theory of Flash" is that download speeds haven't improved nearly as much as processor power—so why not offload the work to the user's machine? Such tiny Flash (vector) files come at the cost of slower performance.
- any operation in Director is very fast. Director supports memory management, optimised for rendering of 2D and 3D graphics
- Director is sluggish in the display of Flash movies!


Flash Vs Director:
The bottom line:

- Director is faster and better for applications like games but harder to learn and use.
- Director uses Shockwave player which is more capable but less used then Flash player.


Flash Vs Director:
File formats:

- Director supports a lot more media formats
- Media in Flash must be imported. Director can store all media in native file formats externally (like .jpg or .wav —to name two). This means updates can be made without re-opening Director.


Flash Vs Director:

In summary there are lots of things you just cant do in Flash. In that case you have to turn to Director.

What can Director do that Flash can’t?
- Games (to be delivered over the Internet or otherwise) with complex character interaction
- Build multi-user games that can be played across the Internet using Director Multiuser Server
- Build web apps with sophisticated sound features (pan, mix, etc.), without too much grief/hacking
- Build multimedia applications that interact not only with people, but also with other applications (e.g. shopping cart).

But Director is not a quick-and-easy on ramp to the multimedia wizard expressway. Director is a huge application. You will not pick up a book on Director 11 days before launch date and build a Shockwave pinball game due to its sophisticated features.


Future of Flash?

“Though Adobe envisages a long future ahead for Flash and AIR, the platform is nonetheless being scaled back. Flash on Android is essentially dead, with the company's decision not to support Flash in Chrome for Android. With the plugin never even an option on iOS, this means that the two biggest smartphone and tablet platforms are Flash-free, and will remain that way forever.

However, both these platforms support the development of standalone applications using the AIR runtime.

The platform isn't going away, and the company clearly has an eye on the future. The Flash browser plugin may well find itself getting squeezed out by a combination of HTML5 and "there's an app for that," but the AIR runtime could continue to be a valuable tool in developers' arsenals.”