Flashcards in KA Psychology Deck (165):
what is spatial mismatch
people living in one area have to travel someone else to work or find decent living.
What is the context effect:
the way the stimulus is present and where it is located effects how you perceive an object.
What is conflict theory?
Karl Marx. Macrosociology. The lower class uprises against the high upper class. Unrest in a society will cause a rebellion for change.
What is sleep apnea?
Stop breathing at night which prevents you from falling from deep sleep.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a blockage of wind pipe.
What is the learning theory of language?
Reinforcement allows for language acquisition by BF Skinner.
What is James Lange theory?
physiological -> emotion
what is subculture?
the culture of a medium sized subcommunity. There are some differences, but there are also a lot of similarities. These subcultures can support someone throughout their entire life. For example, a subculture would be mexican american, different cities, or the orthodox jews of new york.
what are the types of support?
emotional support: listening and empathy, hugs.
esteem support: help motivate you.
informational support: advice and topics
financial support: $$ support.
companionship support: social belonging.
How does hearing adaptation occur?
inner muscles in our ear contract in order to protect the ear drums. This takes a few seconds so it isn't instant. You'll ears will ring if a loud noise occurs next to you.
what is class consciousness?
karl marx. sort of like social conflict. the working class will come together to stop being oppressed and rise up.
what is social reproduction?
inequality is transmitted down the line from generation to generation.
Differentiate fluid and crystallized intelligence:
fluid intelligence is the ability to adapt and solve new problems. decrease as you get older.
crystallized intelligence is accumulated knowledge and skills. increase as you get older.
what is false consciousness?
the workers being controlled by the rich fail to see they're being exploited.
Describe the institution of religion
different scales of religion: going to church, reading, celebrating, etc.
cults are extremes of a religion
secular is more scientific
sects are small subcultures of a religion
fundamentalism is going back to basics.
What are Vgotsky's language theory?
socialization helps to determine language. You socialize with others to learn a language.
What is symbolic interactionalism?
individual's perspective of object & things and assign it meaning to the overall society. these ideas can change and are different for different people.
function of the hypothalamus
regulating autonomic nervous system, hormones,
What are the 6 emotions?
sad, anger, surprise, happy, fear, disgust
what is locus on control
locus of control refers to the extent to which people feel that they have control over the events that influence their lives
what is diffusion in sociology?
spreading of ideas and technology.
What is Cannon Bard theory?
physiological = emotion
What is symbolic interactionism
focuses on micro interactions between individuals exchanging and interpreting shared symbols.
what is labeling theory?
something is only deviant if others have viewed it as deviant.
primary is does not have huge push back.
secondary is severe stigmatizing behavior.
What is narcolepsy?
randomly falling asleep.
what is a counter culture?
STRONGLY disagree with culture. Example would be the amish. They reject mainstream ideas and values.
contrast implicit and explicit memory
both are long term memories
implicit is memories that don't take conscious thought-- riding a bike-- also called procedural memory.
explicit are memories that require thought-- also called declarative memory.
genetic, environmental causes
prodrome is a period of decline before disease
increased levels of dopamine
decreased levels of frontal and cerebral cortex
contrast prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping
Prejudice- affect [ i don't like you]
Discrimination- behavior[ i will avoid you]
Stereotype- cognition[you are stupid]
what is strain theory?
if someone doesn't have equal opportunity then he turns to deviant behavior.
What is sleep rebound?
lacking proper REM sleep, you being it more immediately and have more of it than normal.
What is included in implicit memory?
No conscious thinking needed.
1. Procedural memory
Frued's theory of dreaming:
latent and manifest complex:
latent: what is the deep meaning of the dream?
manifest complex: superficial meaning of dream.
what is availability heuristics vs representative heuristics?
availability is using information you've heard to make a decision, but it may not always be correct.
representative heuristics is using a prototype image and matching others to that pre conceived notion.
What are schemas, accommodation, assimilation.
schemas: framework to organize new organization
assimilation: putting new information to old framework
accommodations: changing schemas to fit new framework of info.
What is pleasure vs reality principle?
Pleasure principle is the idea of instant gratification, usually seen in kids and immature people.
Reality principle is the idea of long term gratification, that you can't always get what you want.
What are the different types of stress:
1. Major Life changes
2. Catastrophic events
3. Daily life hassle
4. Ambient stress
What is the idea of Motion parallax?
Object close are moving fast while objects far away are moving slow.
What is the activation synthesis hypothesis
brain is trying to find a meaning to random electrical impulses.
differentiate collective vs group behavior
collective behavior is typically shorter in time.
collective groups are open to everyone.
What is the Schachter-Singer theory?
physiological + cognitive -> emotion
What are subliminal stimuli?
stimuli below the absolute threshold of sensation.
What is a sensitive period?
point in development that can influence you in later life.
what is the signal detection theory?
At what point are we able to detect a single correctly under uncertain conditions.
What is included in explicit memory?
Needs conscious thinking.
1. Episodic Memory
2. Semantic Memory
What hemisphere is language associated with?
What is Weber's Law?
Delta I / I = K
What is belief perseverance vs confirmation bias.
Belief perseverance is ignoring things you don't like to hear about your point of view.
Confirmation Bias is only seeking out things that confirm your thinking.
describe mass media
transmission of media. different among different cultures.
functionalist view: mm for entertainment and to make norms.
conflict view: how mm exacerbates conflicts in society; gatekeeping. reflects dominant ideology.
interactional view: how mm helps blur the line between individual and a group.
describe kohlbery's moral development
Pre conventional: dictated by punishment mostly, instructional.
Conventional: dictated by societal norms. If others are doing it then you will too. Following law and order
Post Conventional: high level of moral opinions, above the law.
describe depressants :
decrease heart rate, decrease processing speed, decrease sympathetic nervous system
BARBITUATES: anxiety reducing, sleep aids, and increased gaba receptors.
What is part of the limbic system?
What is fixation and insight
fixation is thinking of a problem in one way and getting stuck on it . insight is the ah ha moment when you solve it.
Describe recency and primacy effect
the phenomena that states you're more likely to remember the beginning and end of a list, but only immediately afterwards.
8 months after birth.
What is the Absolute threshold of sensation?
The minimum amount of threshold needed to be able to detect the stimulus 50% of the time.
What are the options of the SDT?
Yes- Present : Hit
No - Present: Miss
Yes- Not Present: False Alarm
No- Not Present: Correct Rejection.
Contract primary and secondary solcilization
Primary socialization involves individuals learning the basic rules and norms of their culture.
Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning norms and behaviors which are appropriate to a small group with a larger society.
What is bottom up theory?
Data driven, no prior knowledge. Using the small bits of information given and working your way up. Stimuli effects perception.
what is facticious disorder?
people fake diseases to be treated.
What is the interactionist theory of language?
Biological and social factors interact for language development. The need to communicate helps a person learn-- Vygotsky.
types of personality disorders
A-- PSS- paranoid, schitzo.
B-- NABH- narcasstic, antisocial, borderline, histonic.
C- ADO- avoidance, dependent, and obsessive personality.
Describe the institution of government:
democratic: all people vote
communism: all property is owned by the people
totalitarianism: authority rules
monarchy: king/ queen
capitalist: supply/ demand
socialism: what benefits society as a whole
Describe Reward Pathway
1. VTA sends Dopamine to Amygdela, Nucleus Accumbens, and hippocampus. DECREASED SEROTONIN.
Amygdela says emotionally, that something was good.
Hippocamus remembers it was good
Nucleus accumbens controls your body to do it again.
Function of the thalamus?
relay station which directs stimuli to appropriate places .
Describe the effects of the drugs to the brain.
Drugs increase dopamine and serotonin levels so your body thinks that's the new normal. Other things in your life will loose meaning because it doesn't give you the same rush of neurotransmitters.
What are some monocular cues?
Interposition: Perception that one object is in front of another. An object that is in the front is closer
Relative Height: things higher are perceived to be farther away than those that are lower.
Relative Size : Can infer with one eye. The closer an object it is perceived as being bigger. Gives us an idea of form.
Shading: using light and shadows to perceive form
extreme form of authoritarianism in which the regime attempts to control all aspects of social life including education, economy, information, art, science, etc. Usually single political part, lots of propaganda, and centrally planned economy.
function of the hippocampus:
convert short term memory to long term memory
Effects of little, no sleep:
irritable, increased weight gain, hypertension, poor memory, depression.
Describe the stages of sleep:
NON REM: n1, n2, n3.
n1: theta waves; hypnogogic effect
n2: k complex and spindle fibers.
n3: deep sleep; sleep walking, bed wetting.
What is the difference between race and ethnicity?
race is physical characteristics.
ethnicity is defined by cultural characteristics.
susceptible to false memories and manipulation.
What is habituation:
is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations.
what is Social epidemiology
looks at health disparities through social indicators like race, gender, and income distribution, and how social factors affect a person’s health. Correlation between social advantages/disadvantages and distribution of health + disease.
what is differential association theory?
deviance comes from repeated exposure to others who are deviant.
What is social facilitation? social loafing?
The presence of others will increase the chances that the dominant form of behavior will be enacted. Social Facilitation occurs when someone completes a manageable task in front of others.
Decreased responsibility of a group member because they feel they aren't being graded.
Differentiate primary and secondary reinforcer
primary reinforcer doesn't need meaning to hold value: food & water
secondary reinforcer needs a meaning for it to hold value: money.
What is the framing effect?
how you present information. two statistics can be the same, but people will still view it differently
How can you cope with stress?
Increase perceived control.
What are statistical adjustments?
controlling variables that could control the relationship between independent variables.
What is trait theory?
Personality by identifiable patterns of behavior.
Traits that allow a person to behave consistently.
Contrast left and right hemipshere:
left : positive emotion, more social
right : negative emotion, more shy
what is discrimination individual vs institution:
Individual discrimination is one person discrimination
Institution discrimination is a group discrimination
What is not effected by aging
crystallized, semantic memory.
retrieving general information.
What is exchange theory and rational choice theory?
rational choice theory: rational decisions that provide for the best cost/benefit analysis.
exchange theory: the rational theory, but in a population setting. do things for more attention, reward. don't do things that are risky, little reward.
SEEK REWARD, DISAPPROVE BAD BEHAVIOR.
What are institutions?
Government, Family, Education, Medicine, and Religion in the society. Created by individuals, but they will continue even after an individual dies.
face more attractive than body.
averageness is attractive.
red is more attractive.
sympathetics increases attractiveness.
What is the function of the nucleus accumbens:
control body's motor functions
describe the types of anxiety disorders
GAD: 6 months, more likely in females. high BP, depression
PD: short bursts of unneeded panic
Phobias: focused anxiety
OCD: repetitive unwanted motions
PTSD: 4 weeks clinically.
Describe Broca's and Wernike's Aphasia:
Brocas: Frontal(left) Lobe; speech. Broken Speech.
Wernike: Temporal Lobe; understand. Difficulty understanding.
what are the types of attachment:
secure: comfortable to explore, upset when gone but stopped soon, and go back to mom on return
insecure: stay with mother/ not explore, upset when gone , the distress didn't end upon return.
What are the three aspects of emotion?
What is the purpose of semicircular canals?
all 90 degrees to each other. helps us determine location in space. circular motion.
Describe I vs Me
Me: what society thinks
I : how we respond to the views of society.
Mead's I is the spontaneous view, less socialized.
Function of the amygdela?
anger center of the brain. stimulating causes anger/fear/anxiety/ violence.
Relate culture and society
society is the actual infrastructure
culture is the rules and guidelines for the infrastructure.
culture is different as you go from place to place
we like others who are like us.
people become similar over time.
Describe the institution of family
more than raising a child. different places around the world have different styles of family. child abuse, elder abuse, spousal abuse, etc.
Describe the different sleep waves
Beta : Awake, stressed (low frequency)
Alpha: relaxed, meditation
Theta: stage 1 sleep
Delta: deep sleep
what is conversion disorder
neurological symptoms; speech, swallowing, seizures. can not explain symptoms.
what causes aggression, biologically?
brain via amygdala , low frontal brain
what is intersectionality?
different aspects of life coming together. gender, race, sexuality, etc.
What is the purpose of the otolith organs?
utricle and saccule. helps with linear motion and head positioning
stimulates sympathetics, increased heart rate.
cocaine: increased seratonin, dopamine, norepinephrine.
meth: increaed dopamine
HUGE CRASH after the effects wear off.
What is environmental justice?
the idea of environmental justice is fair even amount of the environment for everyone, but it usually doesn't work that way. One part of town is crappy and has all the pollution than the other.
Emotional effects of stress:
learned helplessness: less control of your life.
two different "people" in one body
different styles of handwriting. denial of other person.
history of child abuse.
under lots of stress, your cognitive thoughts are separated.
what is the psychoanalytic theory?
childhood and unconscious desires makes personality.
id: biggest part of subconscious, immediate grad.
ego: con and uncon.. long term gratification
superego: moral compass.
What are the different Gestalt Principles?
Gestalt psychology states that the mind processes the whole of a perception rather than the sum of its parts
Closure: objects grouped together are seen as a whole, close gaps.
Continuity: lines are seen as following the smoothest path
Prangz: reality organized reduced to simplest form possible
Proximity: objects that are close are grouped together
Similarity: items similar to one another grouped together by brain
Symmetry: the mind perceives objects as being symmetrical and forming around a center point
What is functionalism?
Emilie Durkheim. Macrosociology. All aspects of society function to help each other grow. Society tries to reach an equilibrium to help changes and balance.
Activity during dreaming:
decreased prefrontal cortex.
What is top down theory?
Using prior knowledge in order to help influence your perception.
what causes aggression, psychological ?
group polarizing , deindivualism
Compare JND and Absolute threshold:
JND is noticing differences in stimuli already noticeable stimuli.
Absolute threshold is the minimum threshold required to notice something 50%
How does the body respond to stress?
sympathetic nervous system.
endocrine system; cortisol.
1. Alarm 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion
What is the just noticeable difference?
The threshold at which you’re able to notice a change in any sensation
What is social cognitive theory?
learning via watching others or learning from the environment.
Contrast intergenerational vs intragenerational
Intergenerational is mobility in at least two generations
Intragenerational is mobility in one generation.
what is humanistic theory?
free will to reach self actualization. focus on conscious. we are good and improve for the better-- Maslow.
Rodgers-- self actualization constant grow process. growth occurs when you're genuine and acceptance for others.
describe residential segregation
segregation based on groups of people.
what is neural plasticity
changes to regions of the brain due to environmental and social factors.
What is side effect discrimination
one area effecting another institution based on discrimination
Routes of drug entry
Oral: slowest entry, longest to break down
Inhalation: straight to the brain, 10 seconds
Injection: straight into blood, seconds. DANGEROUS.
Transdermal: patches for nicotine
Intramuscular: vaccines, epi-pen.
What is self fulfilling prophecy
a behavior which becomes more and more true as we continue to believe it; positive feedback.
What is social inequality and what are the effects?
Inequality between different groups, classes, genders. Eventually causes segregation between in the social structure.
What is tolerance
building sort of an immunity to a drug due to your body turning off the receptors.
What is Piaget's language theory?
Language is influenced by cognitive development.
Some methods of problem solving; trial and error, algorithms,
trail&error: random guessing
algorithms: logical step by step procedure
heuristics: using mental shortcut
What did mead do with childhood development?
play: imitate the role of others-- role play.
game: understanding the role of others in relation to you.
generalized other: an individual's internalized impression of societal norms and expectations.
What is Lazarus's theory of stress:
Primary appraisal: irrelevant, benign/ positive, STRESS!!
1. what will the damage be?
2. what damage has been caused?
3. how can i overcome this ?
What is language determinism?
Language determines thought. The way your language is structured influences the way you think.
What is the the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
People perform best when they are moderately aroused - bell shaped curve.
What are the different adapting types of neurons?
non adaption: same neural response one after another
slow adaption: fires rapidly, but then slows down
fast adaption: fires rapidly, stops, then fires quickly again when a signal is received.
What is the Nativist Theory of Language?
Children are born with the ability to learn language. Noam Chomsky. LAD device will help kids learn language. Critical period of time to learn a language. Difficult afterwards.
what is the biologic theory?
states that genes make up our traits which lead to our personalities, but there is also a environmental component too.
What types of altruism is there?
kin selection: help kin
reciprocal altruism: help others who help you.
cost signaling: people have resources to help-- socially helpful.
what are somatic(physical) symptom disorders
mental disorders causing physical symptoms, but don't present in testing.
Describe the caste system
NO SOCIAL VERTICAL MOVEMENT.
Large amount of social stability.
What is culture lag?
When the increases in material culture makes it hard for the nonmaterial culture to keep up. Perfect example it the rise of technology and cyber laws. We didn't have to deal with this before. There is a lag in that we aren't prepared for all these technological advances.
What are the types of somatosensation a body has to notice:
thermoception, mechanoception (pressure), nociception, and proprioception.
what is the harlow monkey experiment.
monkey exposed cloth for comfort, secure base.
what are the different types of marriages
polygymy is more than one spouse
polygyny is more than one wife
polyandry is more than one husband.
What is horizontal movement in the social ladder?
Movement from one job to another that is at the same level of "status"
Describe the institution on education
more than learning to think. learning to fit in society and the norms.
education isn't the same because of property tax effect the funding a school receives.
What is the universalism language theory?
Thought determines language. If you think about more, then you will create a language or words to fill those thoughts.
contrast folkways, mores, laws, and taboos
folkways: common rules and manners. least consequences.
mores: moral value and belief. truth.
laws: more consistent consequences.
taboo: should not be done.
What is social constructionalism?
Objects exist because we give them reality: money.
What is the Lazarus Theory ?
cognitive -> emotion + physiological
What are piaget's ages of cognitive development and their ages?
0-2 : sensimotor- use senses/motor skills. object perm.
2-7: preocc- egocenteralism. imagination. symbolic.
7-11: concerete- don't understand equality
11+: formal-abstract thinking
aging and cognitive abilities
decline: recall, episodic, divided attention.
stable: implicit (previous memories aid) & recognition.
increase: semantic & crystallized intelligence.
what is the behavioral theory?
we interact with our environment to develop personality--observable[ no need for thoughts or feeling]- BF Skinner and Pavlov.
What are some sensory adaptations?
Touch: desensitized over time to temperature
Smell: desensitized over time smells
Proprioception: changes to adapt to changes in space.
Sight: dilate at night, contract in sun light.
What is retinal disparity?
Eyes are ~2.5 inches apart which allows humans to get slightly different views of objects of world around. Gives humans an idea on depth.
What is the proximity effect and mere exposure effect
You're going to like things more the we're exposed to it more and things that are closer.
What is meritocracy?
position based solely on skill. everyone starts on a level playing field and can only move based on skill.
Contrast absolute vs relative poverty
Absolute pov: amount of money needed to survive.
Relative pov: poverty in reference to someone else.
What are agents of socialization
things most influential to our values and beliefs. peers, teachers, parents, media.
Contrast proximal and distal stimuli:
distal is the light reflected by objects
proximal is the light hitting the retina
x: increased serotonin and dopamine.
What is stereotype threat?
reminding someone of their negative stereotype makes them try to fit that stereotype and they will perform as such.
what is the just world phenomnia
the world is just and everyone gets what is coming to them.
what is the psychoanalytic theory?
childhood and unconscious desires makes personality.
id: instant gratification
superego: mortal high ground
ego: mediating id and superego.
Physical effects of stress:
increase BP, increased vascular disease
extra blood sugar, diabetes
decrease immune system response.
what are fads, mass hysteria, and riots
fads: grand opening, grand closing.
mass hysteria: delusional and anxiety.
riots: large group who are deviant; illegal damages.