Flashcards in Biochemistry Lipids Deck (16):
Describe saturated fatty acids
Saturated with hydrogen bonds, therefore are more stable and fit together neatly. Saturated fatty acids are solids are room temperature like butter.
Describe unsaturated fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond configuration which allows the formation of kinks. The kinks make these fatty acids less likely to stack and therefore are liquids at room temperature.
What are phosphoglycerides?
phosphoglycerides are triglycerides, but one of the fatty acids chains has been replaced with a polar phosphate group.
What are Spingolipids?
Similar to phosphoglycerides, but with a spingosine backbone instead of a glycerol backbone.
What are waxes?
esters of long-chain fatty acids with long-chain alcohols. Used to prevent dehydration in animals.
Describe steroids & cholesterol.
Large nonpolar molecules derived from terpenes.
Cholesterol is derived from steroids and are important for membrane fluidity.
Fat soluble vitamins
Stored in the fat. AEDK.
Function of Vitamin A
Carotene, unsaturated hydrocarbon that is important in vision, growth and development, and immune function.
Function of Vitamin D
converted into calcitriol which helps with calcium uptake.
Function of Vitamin E
Aromatic ring which destroys free radicals and acts as an antioxidant.
Function of Vitamin K
Helps with coagulation.
Relate lipids and energy storage.
Fatty acids and triglycerides are fantastic ways to store energy. More energy comes from the oxidation of these than sugars.
Ester hydrolysis of triglycerides using a strong base. Removes the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone.
What are the two ways to name fatty acids.
Start at carbonyl end @ carbon one, use delta sign to represent where the double bonds are, and whether it is trans or cid.
Start at the omega end @ carbon one and count where the double bonds are, and whether it is trans or cis.
How do unsaturated compounds effect the melting point?
Kinks decrease the amount of energy required to break the bond, therefore the melting point is decreased.