Psychology: Learning and Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology: Learning and Memory Deck (24):

What is classical conditioning?

Classical conditioning is the biological and instinctual process to create an association between two unrelated stimuli. The key experiment in this was Pavlov's Dog.


Describe a classical conditioning experiment.

Pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a conditioned response from the neutral stimulus.


Describe Extinction and spontaneous recovery in terms of classical conditioning.

Extinction is the process through which the paired conditions no longer stimulate the desired response after time has passed.

This response may suddenly occur again and is called spontaneous recovery.


Describe generalization and discrimination in terms of classical conditioning

Generalization is a broadening effect to associate other stimuli to the neutral stimuli.

Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between various stimuli.


Who is the founder of behavioralism?

B.F. Skinner.


What is operant conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment.

Operant conditioning links behavior to consequences though experimentation. Reinforcement hopes to further improve the behavior. Punishment hopes to stop the behavior to reach a goal.


Describe the schedules associated with operant conditioning.

Fixed ratio: specific number until event occurs.
Variable ratio: random number until event occurs.
Fixed interval: specific time until event occurs.
Variable interval: random time until event occurs.


List encoding methods of memory from our senses? Order them in strongest to weakest.

Semantic, Echoic, and Iconic.


How much can short term memory hold?

7 plus or minus 2 pieces of information.


What are some mnemonic devices?

1. Method of Loci: telling a story.
2. PEG System: rhymes associated with number
3. Chunking: organizing information others.


What are explicit memories?

Type of long term memory.
Semantic helps with facts.
Episodic helps with memories.


What are implicit memories?

Types of long term memory.
Procedural helps to learning how to do something.
Priming helps your brain narrow on context.


What are some retrieval cues?

Context effect
State dependence


What is free recall and cued recall?

Free recall is recall without and cues.
Cue recall is associated with cues to make it easier to remember.


What are retroactive and proactive interference?

Proactive is when old memories block new memories.
Retroactive is when new memories block old memories.


Describe Alzheimer's Disease

AD is associated with loss of acetylcholine in the neurons and amyloid plaques in the brain. Causes loss of recent memory.


Describe Korsaoff's Syndrome.

Due to thamine deficiency in the diet. Caused by malnutrition and alcoholism. Can be cured with thamine shots.


Describe Retrograde and anterograde amnesia.

Retrograde is loss of previously formed memory.
Anterograde is inability to form new memory.


What does it mean to shape a condition?

Slow, small steps in order to complete an overall goal.


Long term memory is made up of:

explicit and implicit memory.


Fluid intelligence is:

the ability to reason abstractly and quickly in novel situations


What is the process of consolidation?

Converting short term memory into long term memory.


_____ memory is remembering to do things in the future



Describe Decay

Ebbinghaus was first investigator of decay. When we don’t encode something well or don’t retrieve it for a while, we can’t at all anymore. Connections become weaker over time. Initial rate of forgetting is high but levels off over time.