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Flashcards in Wrong Pile 2 Deck (93):

What are the different units for the density of water?

1 g / cm(cubed)
1 kg/ m (cubed)
1 g / ml
1000 kg / L


At what point do a liquid begin to evaporate, in terms of vapor pressure & boiling point?

When the vapor pressure = boiling point, then the liquid begins to evaporate.


What feature of water molecules allows it to be less dense in the solid state?

Most molecules become tightly packed together when they turn into a solid. However, the structure of water molecules allows for it to have lots of empty space.


Describe beta decay in detail

Beta Decay occurs when a neutron is converted into a proton. Also, there is an emission of an electron in the process. Gamma radiation


Why are children more likely to be used in studies of contamination, dosages as opposed to adults?

Children weigh less than adults, so they have a higher relative dosage than compared to adults at the same level of contamination.


What is the -al ending in organic chemistry represent?



What is the -oate ending in organic chemistry represent?



What is the -one ending in organic chemistry represent?



What is the function of the boiling chip and vacuum in distillation?

Boiling chips prevent super heating.
Vacuum lowers the boiling point.


What is the formula and units for torque?

Torque = Force ( Level Arm ) sin angle. Perpendicular allows for the most torque.

Units: Newton Meters.


Relate pH and pKa

If pH pKa then deprotonated.


Describe Newton's third law:

Fab = -Fba.


Describe diatomic nitrogen

triple bonded, very inert gas.


What are lyases?

break molecules into two smaller molecules without using water or redox reactions


Which amino acids form disulfide bridges?

Cysteine. CC. CysCys.


Describe the movement of electrons along the electron transport chain:

The electrons move along the ETC from a low reduction potential to higher and higher reduction potentials. The last reaction with oxygen therefore has high reducing potential. This makes sense because you're going from O2 to H2O. The removal of oxygen and the addition of two hydrogens.


What is the shortcut to calculate hybridization?

Count the bonds and lone pairs, then add them to make the hybridization.


What is long term potentiation

Succesful neural interaction survival.


What is retrograde amnesia?

Loss of memory of the events just before the accident.


What is anterograde amnesia?

Loss of ability to form new memories.


Define retrospective, prospective, field embedded, and longitudinal research.

retrospective: past research
prospective: proposed to review incoming data.
field embedded: researchers posed as patients
longitudinal study: study over time period.


What is a moderator variable?

Factors that change the strength or direction of the independent and the dependent.


What is a mediator variable?

Explains the relationship that leads to the dependent variable.


What is a confounding variable?

A confounding variable is one which is not typically of interest to the researcher but affects the relationship between the dependent and independent variables


Compare and contrast incidence and prevalence

incidence is all the new cases
prevalence is all the cases


Describe a Cross-sectional design:

examine a group of individuals at one point in time.


Describe a Case control design

compare information about individuals with a disease or condition against people without the disease or condition.


Define the different types of biases:

Reconstructive bias: Reconstructive bias is a type of bias related to memory, not accurate as we think.
Social desirability bias: type of bias related to how people respond to research questions
Attrition bias: occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study.
Selection bias: related to how people are chosen to participate


Compare distress, eustress, and neutress.

Distress is a negative type of stress
eustress is a positive type of stress
neustress is a neutral type of stress


What are the three core components of emotion:

physiological arousal
expressive displays
subjective experiences


What is the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion?

First we experience physiological arousal, then we cognitively interpret the situation, and finally we experience the emotion


What is The Stroop effect?

describes the phenomenon in which it is harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors than information that is consonant.


Relate internal and external attribution in terms of bias

Internal is caused by internal factors.
External is caused by external factors.


What is the formula for Voltage across capacitors?

V = Ed.


What is the structure of hydroquinone?

benzene ring with two opposite oh groups.


What is the structure of benzoquione?

Benzene ring with two opposite ketones.


What type of reaction is a proteolytic cleavage?



Extraction shortcut:

WA polarizes SB to AQ
SA polarizes WB to AQ
WB polarizes SA to AQ
SB polarizes WA to AQ


Units for mega and giga

ten to the 6 and 9.


What is the formula for Decibels?

dB = 10 log (I/ 10^-12)


What is important about cysteine?

Ability to form disulfide bridges; covalently bonded dimers.


How do you measure catalytic efficiency?

Kcat/ Km.
More efficient with high kcat and low Km.


Describe size elusion chromatography:

bigger molecules elute fast.
small molecules elute slow.


What is the purpose of switching to small, nonpolar amino acids?

They eliminate the hassle of steric hindrance in the reaction.


What do km and kcat represent?

Km is the substrate's binding ability, or affinity, want this low for high affinity.
Kcat is turnover number, or the amount of substrate converted per unit time, you want this number to be high., DURING SATURATED CONDITIONS.


What do these mean in terms of amino acids:
D59, W62, W63, D101, N103, and A107

These codes describe the type and location of the amino acid.

D59 = Aspartic Acid @ location 59.
W62 = Trp @ location 62
W63 = Trp @ location 63
D101 = Aspartic Acid @ location 101
N103 = Asparagine @ location 103
A107 = Alanine @ location 107


Relate hyperbolic vs sigmoidal graphs in terms of enzymes.

a Hyperbolic graph is standard for MM enzymes.
a Sigmodial graph is standard for allosteric enzymes.


What changes does an UNcompetitive inhibitor make?

decreased km
decreased vmax


Describe the complementary colors, absorption, and reflection:

Yellow is complementary to purple
Orange is complementary to blue
Red is complementary to green

If a lot of yellow absorbed, then purple is reflected.


What do the points on a LW-Burk plot represent?

x axis = 1/ km
y axis = 1/ vmax
slope = km / vmx


What does running an SDS Page under NON REDUCTION conditions mean?

IF there are proteins that have multiple units, then they will run as a monomer.


Compare and contrast the abilities of NADH and NAD+

NADH has an extra hydrogen which allows it to reduce other molecules, especially when it comes to breaking bonds.


Contrast cation/ anion exchange columns

Cations exchanges catches cations.
Anion exchanges catches anions.


Contrast kinase, phosphorylase, and phosphtase

1. kinase add phosphate from ATP.
2. phosphorylase transfers phosphate from inorganic phosphate.
3. phosphatase removed phosphate.


Where are phosphates added to organic molecules during kinase/phosphorylase?

to OH groups.


Contrast alpha and beta carbohydrates

They're anomers at the anomeric carbon


What is a phosohpdieseter bond?

P-O bonding multiple nucleotides together.


What is Tm for proteins, dna, molecules, etc.

Tm is the temperature at which 50% of function is lost.


What does the term shadowing mean in psychology?

Shadowing is a term used to describe subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it.


Which area of the brain is linguistic control located?

Left hemisphere.


What type of attention does a subject display when they are shadowing by speech?

selective attention.


What does the p value represent?

Higher the p value, then the higher the probability that the difference between the groups is due to chance


Describe the methods used to create the IQ test:

IQ tests scores are normalized to a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. So, 68% of the scores will be between 85 and 115.


How does cocaine effect the body?

Cocaine is a stimulant so it would work the same way as if the body was stressed. Increased glucose metabolism.


Why is it better to continuously reinforce at the beginning of operant conditioning?

Informs the subject of the correct behavior early on.


What is instinctual drift?

The behavior learned via operant conditioning is forgotten and replaced by instinctual behavior.


What isn't effected by aging?

ability to retrieve general information (semantic memory, crystalized memory).


What is spherical abberration vs chromatic abberration?

spherical abberration is a disparity in the bending of light with a concave lens which causes a blurry image to form.

chromatic abberation is due to colors bending different amounts which causes discoloration.


Farsighted vision:

Can see far away images just fine, but has trouble with close images. Prescribe a CONVEX lens.


Nearsighted vision:

Can see close images just fine, but has trouble with far away images. Prescribe diverging, or concave lens.


What is Declarative Memory?

also known as explicit memory, is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact


What is the psychosocial discrimination test?

directly assess our perception of the stimuli in relation to the true property of the object.


What is flashbulb memory?

People claim to remember the detail of what they were doing when they received news about an emotion, or traumatic event. "Where were you on 9/11?"


What is false memory?

Memory that didn't happen, but the subject strongly believes that it occurred.


What is the incentive theory?

States how incentives, outside the individuals control, can motivate a person to change their behavior.


What is social epidemiology?

How social and cultural factors contribute in the spread of diseases.


What is cultural capital?

knowledge, skill, education, and characteristics of a person or group.


What social cognitive theory?

Suggests that behavior is learned through observing others and modeling their behavior.


What is intersectionality?

an individual's position in a social hierarchy is determined y multiple factors such as age, race, religion, orientation.


What is the looking glass self?

suggests that self concept is influenced by how WE PERCEIVE others are viewing us.


What is the demographic transition theory?

Theory of how population changes over time due to urbanization. In the past, there were high death and birth rates. After urbanization and improvement to countries the both the birth rates and death rates decreased.


Discuss the different methods to view the brain via scans.

MRI: uses the detection of radio frequency signals produced by displaced radio waves in a magnetic field
fMRI: detects changes in blood flow to particular areas of the brain
PET: injection of molecules to measure activity in the body; Provides an image of brain activity.
CT: X-ray scanner detects radioactive material that is injected or inhaled to create an image.


What are the stages of Piagette's theory and the age associated with it?

S: Birth - 2
P- 2 - 7
C- 7 - 11
F- 11 +


What are the universal emotions?

Fear, Anger, Disgust, Sad, Surprise, Happy.


What is stranger anxiety?

Babies begin to become anxious around strangers about the time they are 8 months of age.


What is place theory?

One is able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity in different area of the ear.


What is the parvo pathway?

Parvo pathway helps determine the form, spatial resolution of STATIONARY Objects. It has very poor temporal, or movement, resolution. COLOR.


What is the margo pathway.

Margo pathway helps us determine motion, temporal resolution of moving objects. IT has poor spatial resolution. NO COLOR.


What is feature detection?

the ability to see the form, motion, and color of objects through parallel processing.


What is the fovea?

Area in the back of the eye with a HIGH density of cones.
Periphery contained more rods which are more photosensitive and can see detect light.


What is the trait of reliability?

able to produce stable and consistent results.


Distinguish rods and cones

Rods are on the periphery and are useful for night time vision. Hitting the rod turns it off to activate the cascade.

Cones are at the fovea and are useful for detecting color; three types: red, green, and blue.


Describe how light goes through from the eyes to the brain.

Left ray will hit left nasal eye. Left ray will hit right temporal eye. Left nasal will cross the optic chiasm and travel to the right side of the brain.

Right ray will hit right nasal eye. Right ray will hit left temporal eye. Right nasal will cross the optic chiasm and travel to the left side of the brain.