Flashcards in wrong pile 4. Deck (101):
What is the function of pulmonary surfactant?
Pulmonary surfactant adsorbs to the air-water-alveoli interface, reducing surface tension and the total force resisting expansion. This increases pulmonary compliance—a measure of lung volume change at a given pressure of inspired air—and decreases the work required to expand the lungs at a given atmospheric pressure.
gamma rays can cause:
free radical formation
excite electrons to a higher energy level
ejection of electrons to another orbital.
Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation would have the shortest wavelength?
Shortest wavelength means high frequency, which is related to high energy. The more s character a molecule has, the harder it is to remove the electron which requires more energy. The molecules with the most S characteristics, or sp molecules produce the shortest wavelength.
What are solvents for Sn2 reactions?
The SN2 mechanism is favored by polar aprotic solvents, such as acetone or DMSO.
How do you calculate pH for a weak acid?
pH = pka + log (d/p)
How do you calculate cap?
Q = CV
tan angle =
sin angle / cos angle
formula for energy of spring
KE = .5 kx ^ 2
What is the path of electrons in ETC
goes from low reducing potential to high reducing potentials.
What are the effects of hyperventilation:
decreased co2 in the body.
increased pH levels
loss of co2 means increased hemoglobin affinity to o2.
What are the effects of aldosterone?
Increase Na and water absorption
Excretion of K
Describe alpha and beta sheets:
alpha: spiral shaped
beta: stacked sheetsb
What is siRna?
Blocks the translation of a nonfunctional mRNA strand to prevent creating of a dysfunctional protein.
What is the function of restriction enzymes?
Bacteria use it to cut out viral DNA.
We can use it to manipulate bacterial DNA by inserting test dNA into the bacteria in order to replicate.
MUST HAVE PALINDROMIC SEQUENCES.
What is a cDNA ?
Figure out mRNA sequences (remove introns), use reverse transcriptase to make DNA molecule, then use DNA polymerase to make a full function DNA to study.
What is hybridization?
use fluorescence to detect the about of protein are in a control cell vs up regulated/ down regulated cell.
what is gel electrophoresis?
DNA is negative and will move towards the positive side based on size and charge.
1. apply heat to denature dna
2. apply primer to bind taq polymerase
3. allow to elongate dna
2^x = amount per round.
How do you determine steroisomers?
n = chiral centers.
Describe solubility in terms of K
K 1; goes to the product side.
alpha 1 2 glycosidic bond
NON REDUCING SUGAR.
describe reducing, Reducing agent, oxidation, oxidation agent
If something is reduced, then it acts as the oxidizing agent.
If something is oxidized, then it acts as the reducing agent.
what is the frequency of gamma waves
Units for Volt
Joules / Coloumbs
What is emitted during beta decay
What would switching L to D do in protein formation?
It would inhibit it. WE ONLY USE L AMINO ACIDS . D DOESN'T WORK.
contrast Euchromatin vs Heterochromatin
Heterochromatin is tightly packed
Euchromatin in loose.
actin and myosin.
What are the three colors absorbed for cones:
red, green, blue.
What is a negative side effect of proline?
alpha helix breaker.
Dissociation constant. The higher the number the more likely the substrate will dissociate .
What is proactive vs reteroactive interference?
Proactive is old information interfering with new information
Reteroactive is new information interfering with old information.
what is internal locus of control vs external locus of control
internal loc is attributing outcome of behavior to personal traits.
external loc is attributing outcomes to external situtations
What is confirmation bias?
tendency to favor information that supports pre-exisiting beliefs.
What is anomie
lack of social norms that leads to the breakdown of an individual and their community.
what are mirror neurons?
activated when performing an action and when you're observing others perform an action.
what are kohlbery's steps to moral development?
Pre: punishment/reward. individualism/exchange.
convent: norms/law/order of what society would do.
Post: examine social contract. high moral reasoning.
describe core and periphery nations
core nations are the well developed countries
periphery nations are the poor, undeveloped countries
describe mead's theory
I: spontaneous and observes how society views it
Me: the views of how society views a person
what is sensory memory?
how to get information from your sense.
iconic memory doesn't last as long as echoic .
what is working memory?
7 +/- 2 pieces of information.
visuospatial sketchpad: visual and spatial information (maps)
phonological loop: words and numbers (phone number)
what does controlling information in research mean?
researchers identified various factors that could server as confounding variables
what is reterograde transportation?
Moving in the reverse way for transportation.
how many electrons does cytochrome c carry?
what dna molecule makes for best primer?
the best primers are the most stable ones. the most stable dna strands are the strands with the most CG .
how do you most likely reduce unfavorable entropy on proteins?
Move a hydrophilic molecule on the surface and remove a hydrophobic one.
what is part of the endoderm?
NOT THE MOUTH THOGUH
what is part of the ectoderm?
nervous system , eyes, mouth, skin.
what is part of the mesoderm?
skeleton, muscle, blood, heart, excretory, reproductive.
How do you calculate the number of gametes
n = number of heterozygotes.
determine if a receptor is on the nucleus or membrane.
ANY small amount of polarity means it can't cross the membrane and therefore the receptor will be on the membrane.
describe filament theory:
1. calcium binds on tropomyosin to open tropinin.
2. atp is converted to adp to allow myosin to bind to actin
3. adp released, movement occurs, and the two are stuck together.
4. ATP comes by to remove myosin from actin.
What is the overall goal of fermentation and what is the final electron acceptor?
the goal is to regenerate NAD+
The final acceptor is pyruvate.
name the different types of phosphate groups:
phosphoric acid: H3PO4
hydrogen phosphate: HPO4^-2
Dihydrogen phosphate: H2PO4-
What is the doppler shift equation?
Frequency observed = frequency source( Vmedium +/- Vobserver ) / ( V medium -/+ V source)
What is the function of each quantum number?
n = shell number, the size of the electron rings.
l = azimuthal number, the shape of the molecule.
m= magnetic quantum #, the lines for electrons to fill.
ms= spin of the electrons.
Presbyoipia = Hyperopia = Farsighted. The image is formed BEHIND the retina.
Corrected with convex, converging lens.
Where are alkyne located on IR?
around 2100- 2200 cm .
Contrast constitutional vs geometrical isomers
Constitutional isomers are the same formula, but different configuration.
Geometric isomers are cis/trans bonds.
What are the basic/ acidic amino acids and what charge is associated with them at a ph of 7
Basic : histidine, arginine, lysine (+)
Acidic : glutamic and aspartic acid (-)
what does it mean to be amphoteric?
can act as an acid or a base.
Relate Ka and pkA
Big Ka means strong acid, which has a low pkA value.
compare acid/ base conjugates
weak acid forms a conjugate weak base
weak base forms a conjugate weak acid
Relate pkA and pkB
pkA + PkB = 14.
What occurs at half equivalence point and what is the relationship?
Half equivalence point is where the pH = pKA value.
If it takes 50 mL of NaOH to make the equivalence point, then it takes 25 mL of NaOH to make the half equivalence point.
Describe the conjugate of strong acid/ bases
HCl ---> Cl -
NaOH ----> Na +
These are both neutral because the reaction goes to completion.
Compare Acid/ Base conjugate strength
a relatively strong acid will have a relatively weaker conjugate base.
a relatively weak acid will have a relatively stronger conjugate base.
How do you calculate the pH of a buffer solution given a Ka value?
Well at the buffer point, which is .5Eq, we know the pKA and equal the the pH. Taking - log (Ka), we can solve for the pKa and find the pH of the solution.
If the kA was 1.8 *10^-4. Then the pH would be around 3.
OR YOU CAN USE THE HENDERSON HASSLEBACH EQUATION, WHICH SAYS THE SAME THING.
Describe the different systems of thermodynamics
open: changes mass and energy
isolated: neither mass or energy is exchanged.
closed: energy is exchanged, but not mass.
Describe work and PV graphs
From point 1 to point 2, the work done BY the system in the area under the graph
From point 2 to point 1, the work done to the system in the area under the graph.
THEREFORE, the total net work is the area in the middle.
What are the strong acids?
HI, Hbr, HCl, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Acidity of metal ions
group 1 and 2 are usually neutral, however the other metals are usually acidic.
What is Hess's Law?
Adding up the enthalpies of the elementary reactions to fit the overall reaction.
How do you calculate enthalpy of formation
sum of the products - sum of the reactants.
coefficients are included.
how do you solve LR reactions
start with one reactant and calculate the other reactant grams, or moles.
the one that is too high is the limiting reagent.
use the LR to solve the reaction.
What does O3 do to a molecule?
oxonoylsis. breaks apart alkene bonds and forms either aldehydes or ketones.
how do you calculate resistivity?
r = pL / A
Compare and contrast steroids and cholesterol
Both are 4 cycloalkane rings
Cholesterol has a long alkane chain on the top right
Steroids don't have the long alkane chain.
What biological processes use MTA, spindle fibers?
Mitosis, Meiosis, and anything related with cellular movement. No spindle formation during G1.
Compare bacterial and eukaryotic flagella:
bacteria flagella are made from protein filaments
eukaryotic flagella are made from microtubules.
Relate GTP bound vs GDP bound
GTP bound activates a molecule
GDP bound inactivates a molecule
Describe the different types of gene regulation
beta galactosidase breaks down lactose.
when glucose levels are high, glucose will bind to the promotor allow allow the repressor protein to form. the repressor will bind to the operator and block beta galactosidase formation.
when glucose levels are low, lactose levels are high. the lactose will bind to the repressor allowing for the transcription of beta galactosidease.
describe lac operon components
promoter = binds rna polymerase.
operator = repression binding site.
why is proline special?
The unusual cyclic structure of proline creates a high degree of rigidity in the primary structure of a protein and disrupts the normal formation of alpha or beta secondary structures. Thus proline is much more likely to be found in the unstructured “turn” regions of a protein between the larger secondary structures.
what is the requirement for a keto enol transformaton
alpha hydrogen present for removal.
how does complex 2 in the ETC get it's electrons
FADH2 and succinate.
What are the different types of organizations?
Normative: voluntary basis.
Coercive: force to join.
Utilitarian: compensated for their involvement.
Mimetic: copying another organization.
Who was an important founder in the biological perspective?
Characterize Frued's iceberg
conscious : super ego and the ego
preconscious: super ego and the ego
unconscious: super ego, ego, and id.
Describe perspective vs descriptive in PS:
perspective is what a person thinks should occur
descriptive is what a person believes is actually occuring
How are asian societies different from the western?
Asian cultures tend to place less emphasis on individual factors and more on group factors.
Describe dopamine and serotonin in the reward pathway:
dopamine is typically the neurotransmitter used in the reward pathway.
Serotonin is used for pleasure, but dopamine is more likely to be used.
What can reduce group think?
a lone dissenter.
What is cross over design?
each group tries the other experiment.
Relate primary and secondary groups
primary group is your family and lifelong friends
secondary group are your co workers and acquaintances.
Contrast the speed at which diffusion and active transport proceed
active transport is much faster than waiting for molecules to diffuse.
what can be said about reactions with a k value around 1.
temperature won't really effect the reaction.
delta G = -RT ln K. A K value of 1 would make Delta G = 0.
what is release upon beta decay?
release of a beta particle ( either electron or positron)
What causes changes in frequency of vocal cords?
the tension .