Keef Overview of Renal physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Keef Overview of Renal physiology Deck (92)
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1

(blank) percent of nephrons are cortical while (blank) are juxtamedullary

85%, 15%

2

What is the distal tubule right next to?

the glomerular capillary (glomerulus)

3

The more resistance you have the less (blank)

permeable

4

The expression pattern of (blank) along the nephron determines the relative ability of water and particles to move via a paracellular route.

tight junction proteins

5

What part of the nephron has the most resistance?

The collecting duct

6

(blank) are key integral membrane proteins that provide the barrier function and permit selective paracellular transport in the nephron.

Claudins

7

With injury to the nephron, multiple signaling pathways are activated, resulting in phosphorylation of (blank) and disruption of the complex.

Tight junction proteins

8

resistance goes up from what end to what end of the nephron and is dependent on the properties of the what?.

It gets more resistance from beginning (glomerulus) all the way to the end (collecting duct).
Dependent on properties of in between cells

9

The permeability of tight junctions between epithelial cells (blank) throughout the nephron

differs

10

The permeability of tight junctions between epithelial cells differs throughout the nephron. It is determined by the expression levels of (blank) that project into the paracellular space between cells. Disruption of these proteins through injury, disease or mutation can lead to serious disruption of normal renal function.

various proteins

11

Arginine vasopression is another name for what?

antidiuretic hormone

12

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka arginine vasopressin (AVP) greatly increases water permeability in the collecting duct by recruiting (blank)

water channels (aquaporins).

13

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka arginine vasopressin (AVP) greatly increases water permeability in the (blank)
by recruiting water channels (aquaporins).

collecting duct

14

Different parts of the nephron express different (blank)

aquaporins (AQP).

15

Are ALL aquaporins recruited by ADH?
Which ones are recruited by ADH?

No
AQP2,3,4

16

What aquaporins are found in the proximal tubule?

AQP1, 7

17

(blank) surround all parts of the nephron and a subset of these supplying the Juxtamedullary nephrons are referred to as the “vasa recta”

Peritubular capillaries

18

Peritubular capillaries surround all parts of the nephron and a subset of these supplying the Juxtamedullary nephrons are referred to as the (blank)

“vasa recta”

19

Which have longer loops of henley, juxtamedullary or cortical nephrons?

juxtamedullary

20

How many layers of epithelium does bowmens capsule have?

one layer

21

Which creates the osmotic gradient, juxtamedullary or cortical nephrons?

the juxtamedullary

22

Where are vasa recta found? Is it high or low pressure?

in the juxtamedullary nephrons
Low pressure

23

Explain the blood flow of the cortical nephron

renal artery->afferent arteriole(resistance)->glomeruls (high pressure)->efferent arteriole (resistance)-> peritubular capillaries (low pressure) ->renal vein

24

Explain the blood flow of the juxtamedullary nephron

renal artery->afferent arteriole(resistance)->glomeruls (high pressure)->efferent arteriole (resistance)-> Blood flow splits between Peritubular capillaries(low pressure) and Vasa Recta (most blood flows here, low pressure)-> renal vein

25

Where is the majority of blood flow and how much RBF goes here?

90% to cortex
10% to medulla

26

What is the first point of resistance?

afferent arteriole

27

What is the juxtaglomeruluar apparatus?

it is the point where the distal convuluted tubule is in close proximity to the glomerulus

28

What are the specialized granular cells of the afferent arterioles? What do they secrete?

juxtaglomerular cells
renin

29

What are part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and sense the level of flow?

macula densa cells

30

(blank) cells are used as feedback mechanisms to regulate flow via renin release

macula densa cells