Flashcards in Keeping people healthy week 3 Deck (29)
Give an overview of breast milk
sole food for 6 months
provides immune protection
promotes maturation of gut and brain
protects mother's health- spacing pregnancies, reduces cancer risk, helps with weight loss after birth
Describe the composition of breast milk
sugars - 75% mainly lactose
protein 1.3% - casein 0.4%
What is different about colostrum?
high protein, low in fat and sugar
How does breast milk provide immune protection?
macrophages, T cells, stem cells and lymphocytes
secretory immunoglobulin A - passive immunity
biologically active substances in the gut
alpha-lactalbumin; antibacterial and immune system properties
lactoferrin binds to iron in competition with bacterial pathogens
oligosaccharides - selectively encourages growth of probiotic organisms
How does breast milk encourage maturation of the gut?
epidermal growth factors - healing
neuronal growth factors - peristalsis
What is a condition that bottle fed infants are more likely to develop?
How does breast milk encourage brain development?
long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids - decohexanoic acid
How long is breast feeding recommended for?
exclusively for 6 months
continuing for at least a year
How does prolactin work?
secreted by anterior pituitary gland in response to nipple stimulation
signals lactocytes to produce milk
prolactin critical in long term milk supply
How does oxytocin work?
Secreted in posterior pituitary in response to nipple stimulation
stimulates smooth muscle in alveoli to eject milk
let down refex
How is lactation controlled?
feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL) secreted in milk
as milk volume increases, FIL blocks milk production
removing FIL allows further milk production
What are reasons that people stop breast feeding?
sore / cracked nipples
not gaining weight
family/ friends pressure
What can help breast feeding to be successful?
skin to skin contact soon after birth
keep mother and baby together
allow unrestricted feeds
support mothers to breast feed at night
use dummies with caution
What are the pros of bottle feeding?
large volumes available at all times
enables separation from mother
father can give feeds
supplies roughly same macronutrients as breast milk
bottle fed babies tend to sleep longer
What are the cons of bottle feeding?
bottles need to be cleaned, sterilised and made up
formula milk is expensive
when out, equipment has to be carried and boiled water found
lacks all the biologically active elements of breast milk
places child at risk of SID, cognitive development, infection
What are some problems with breast feeding?
mother has to learn practical techniques
lactation can be painful
feeding frequency at night
breast feeding is demanding and tiring
requires mother to be with baby 24 hours a day
describe growth of babies
babies usually double in weight in first 4 months of life
they usually triple their weight in first tear
larger babies at birth often grow less
premature babies usually catch up in their first year
What is the role of a health visitor?
ante/post natal support
advise on feeding
assessing growth and development
supporting children with special needs
behaviour management techniques
advise on how to prevent accidents
information on local services
What is stigma?
stigma marks an individual out as being unacceptably different from "normal" people with whom he/she interacts
What are some forms of stigma?
What is external stigma?
the experience of being treated differently by other people
What is internal stigma?
the way a person feels about themselves
What are the impacts of external stigma?
stigma by association (stereotypes)
What are the impacts of internal stigma?
self-exclusion from services or opportunities
perception of self - low self esteem
fear of disclosure
What is labelling?
labelled differences linked to stereotypes
link to prejudice
What can discrimination have impacts on?
How can stigma and labelling be challenged?
education for all
what lifestyle factors can cause cancer?