Keeping people healthy week 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Keeping people healthy week 3 Deck (29):
1

Give an overview of breast milk

sole food for 6 months
provides immune protection
promotes maturation of gut and brain
protects mother's health- spacing pregnancies, reduces cancer risk, helps with weight loss after birth

2

Describe the composition of breast milk

sugars - 75% mainly lactose
fat 4%
protein 1.3% - casein 0.4%
minerals

3

What is different about colostrum?

high protein, low in fat and sugar

4

How does breast milk provide immune protection?

macrophages, T cells, stem cells and lymphocytes
secretory immunoglobulin A - passive immunity
biologically active substances in the gut
alpha-lactalbumin; antibacterial and immune system properties
lactoferrin binds to iron in competition with bacterial pathogens
oligosaccharides - selectively encourages growth of probiotic organisms

5

How does breast milk encourage maturation of the gut?

epidermal growth factors - healing
neuronal growth factors - peristalsis

6

What is a condition that bottle fed infants are more likely to develop?

necrotising enterocolitis

7

How does breast milk encourage brain development?

long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids - decohexanoic acid

8

How long is breast feeding recommended for?

exclusively for 6 months
continuing for at least a year

9

How does prolactin work?

secreted by anterior pituitary gland in response to nipple stimulation
signals lactocytes to produce milk
prolactin critical in long term milk supply

10

How does oxytocin work?

Secreted in posterior pituitary in response to nipple stimulation
stimulates smooth muscle in alveoli to eject milk
let down refex

11

How is lactation controlled?

feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL) secreted in milk
as milk volume increases, FIL blocks milk production
removing FIL allows further milk production

12

What are reasons that people stop breast feeding?

hungry baby
sore / cracked nipples
no milk
"right time"
not gaining weight
family/ friends pressure

13

What can help breast feeding to be successful?

skin to skin contact soon after birth
keep mother and baby together
allow unrestricted feeds
support mothers to breast feed at night
use dummies with caution
don't supplement

14

What are the pros of bottle feeding?

large volumes available at all times
enables separation from mother
father can give feeds
supplies roughly same macronutrients as breast milk
bottle fed babies tend to sleep longer

15

What are the cons of bottle feeding?

bottles need to be cleaned, sterilised and made up
formula milk is expensive
when out, equipment has to be carried and boiled water found
lacks all the biologically active elements of breast milk
places child at risk of SID, cognitive development, infection

16

What are some problems with breast feeding?

mother has to learn practical techniques
lactation can be painful
feeding frequency at night
breast feeding is demanding and tiring
requires mother to be with baby 24 hours a day

17

describe growth of babies

babies usually double in weight in first 4 months of life
they usually triple their weight in first tear
larger babies at birth often grow less
premature babies usually catch up in their first year

18

What is the role of a health visitor?

ante/post natal support
support parents
advise on feeding
assessing growth and development
supporting children with special needs
behaviour management techniques
advise on how to prevent accidents
information on local services

19

What is stigma?

stigma marks an individual out as being unacceptably different from "normal" people with whom he/she interacts

20

What are some forms of stigma?

culture
weight
gender
age
race
sexuality
diseases

21

What is external stigma?

the experience of being treated differently by other people

22

What is internal stigma?

the way a person feels about themselves

23

What are the impacts of external stigma?

avoidance
refection
moral judgement
stigma by association (stereotypes)
discrimination
abuse
victimisation

24

What are the impacts of internal stigma?

self-exclusion from services or opportunities
perception of self - low self esteem
social withdrawal
overcompensation
fear of disclosure

25

What is labelling?

labelled differences linked to stereotypes
link to prejudice

26

What can discrimination have impacts on?

income
education
mental wellbeing
housing
health
medical treatment

27

How can stigma and labelling be challenged?

education for all
challenging prejudices
legislation
rational arguments
concrete evidence

28

what lifestyle factors can cause cancer?

obesity
smoking
physical inactivity
drinking
UV exposure
diet

29

What services can doctors point patients to to reduce their chances of cancer?

exercise initiatives
dietary advise
weight loss groups
smoking cessation
alcohol services