Flashcards in keeping people healthy week 4 Deck (33):
What initiates puberty?
puberty starts with the de-inhibition of the pulse generator of the arcuate nucleus
Leptin levels rise in the body throughout childhood and play a part in allowing the arcuate nucleus to resume operation
release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
Pituitary gland secretes FSH and LH
These signal the start of sexual development
Describe puberty in girls
ovaries start to produce oestrogen
body matures in preparation for pregnancy
first sign is normally breast development
then hair grows in pubic area and axillae
menstruation usually occurs last
Describe puberty in boys
sperm and hormone production
testosterone responsible for most changes in the body
puberty begins with testicle and penis enlargement
then hair grows in pubic area and axillae
muscles grow, voice deepens, facial hair develops
What are the first signs of puberty due to?
increased secretion of adrenal androgens, possibly under the influence of adrenocorticotropin hormone
What can cause delayed puberty?
Describe constitutional delay
most common cause of delayed puberty
affected children are healthy and usually more than 2.5 SDs below the median height for their age throughout childhood
often family history
in constitutional delay bone age will be less than chronological age
What effects can delayed puberty have?
in young skeleton oestrogen deficiency leads to increased osteoclast formation and enhanced bone resorption
oestrogen inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts
the effect is probably mediated by IL1 and IL6
what is a risk factor?
an aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or inherited characteristics that on basis of scientific evidence, is known to be associated with meaningful health related conditions
What are risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
What is the life course approach?
the study of long term effects on later health or disease risk of physical or social exposures during gestation, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood or later in adult life
What is programming?
the process whereby a stimulus or insult at a sensitive period of time has lasting effect on the structure and function of the body
What is the Barker hypothesis?
the impact of poor foetal nutrition across different sensitive periods results in changes in body structure and function which prepare the baby for austerity
What are the risk factors in the adverse childhood experiences study?
abuse- emotional, physical or sexual
household challenges- mother treated violently, household substance abuse, mental illness in household, parental operation, criminal household behaviour
neglect - physical or emotional
What are the ACE risk factors for?
illicit drug use
poor work performance
risk of partner violence
risk of sexual violence
poor academic achievement
What can adverse childhood experience do?
disrupt neurodevelopment, causes social, emotional and cognitive impairment, adoption of health risk behaviours, disease, disability and morbidity, early death
What are possible interventions during the life course?
action of socioeconomic status
action on parenting support
intervention at school
intervention through gangs
intervention in prison
what is the definition of a drug?
a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well being
What are the social impacts of drugs and alcohol?
what are the health impacts of drugs and alcohol?
What are the determinants of drug use?
What is contained in cigarettes?
arsenic, cyandie, ammonia, acetone, benzene, formaldehyde, cadmium, hydrogen cyanide etc
What is addiction?
compulsive physiological and psychological need for a habit-forming substance
characterised by compulsive drug-seeking and use even in face of negative health consequences
What effect does nicotine have?
stimulates adrenal glands - increases heart rate, BP, breathing, release glucose, surpasses insulin
Binds to "nicotinic" ACH receptors - brain creates more receptors, if these are not activated causes cravings
Dopamine is also released in response to nicotine - pleasure pathway - enjoyment and relaxation
tolerance is quickly acquired
What is second hand smoke associated with?
lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, bronchitis
What are examples of oestrogen and progesterone contraceptives?
What are examples of progesterone only contraceptives?
progesterone only pill
progesterone release IUD (mirena coil)
What are examples of barrier methods of contraceptives?
condom - male and female
diaphragm and cervical caps
What are natural methods of contraception?
What types of sterilisation are there?
female - tubal ligation
male - vasectomy
What factors influence contraceptive choice?
knowledge and understanding of method
personal features - e.g forgetfulness
lifestyle and occupation
motivation not to be pregnant
alcohol and drug use
peer / partner pressures
embarrassed to discuss with health professional
concerns re confidentiality
poor access to services
cultural / religious influences
Who are at increased risk of STIs?
men who have sex with men
people from or who partners from, countries with high rates of STIs
frequent partner change
previous bacterial STI
early onset sexual activity
alcohol or substance abuse
What are the fraser guidelines?
the young person understands the professional's advise
the young person cannot be persuaded to tell their parents
the young person is likely to begin, or to continue having, sexual intercourse with or without contraception
unless the young person receives contraception, their physical or mental health, or both, are likely to suffer
the young person's best interests require them to receive contraceptive advise or treatment with or without parental consent