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Flashcards in keeping people healthy week 4 Deck (33):
1

What initiates puberty?

puberty starts with the de-inhibition of the pulse generator of the arcuate nucleus
Leptin levels rise in the body throughout childhood and play a part in allowing the arcuate nucleus to resume operation
release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
Pituitary gland secretes FSH and LH
These signal the start of sexual development

2

Describe puberty in girls

Ages 10-14
ovaries start to produce oestrogen
body matures in preparation for pregnancy
first sign is normally breast development
then hair grows in pubic area and axillae
menstruation usually occurs last

3

Describe puberty in boys

ages 12-16
sperm and hormone production
testosterone responsible for most changes in the body
puberty begins with testicle and penis enlargement
then hair grows in pubic area and axillae
muscles grow, voice deepens, facial hair develops

4

What are the first signs of puberty due to?

increased secretion of adrenal androgens, possibly under the influence of adrenocorticotropin hormone

5

What can cause delayed puberty?

constitutional delay
hypogonadotropin hypogonadism
chronic illness
psychological stress
anorexia nervosa
excessive exercise
endocrine disease

6

Describe constitutional delay

most common cause of delayed puberty
affected children are healthy and usually more than 2.5 SDs below the median height for their age throughout childhood
often family history
in constitutional delay bone age will be less than chronological age

7

What effects can delayed puberty have?

in young skeleton oestrogen deficiency leads to increased osteoclast formation and enhanced bone resorption
oestrogen inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts
the effect is probably mediated by IL1 and IL6

8

what is a risk factor?

an aspect of personal behaviour or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or inherited characteristics that on basis of scientific evidence, is known to be associated with meaningful health related conditions

9

What are risk factors for cardiovascular disease?

smoking
alcohol
inactivity
inappropriate diet
genetics
mental health
diabetes

10

What is the life course approach?

the study of long term effects on later health or disease risk of physical or social exposures during gestation, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood or later in adult life

11

What is programming?

the process whereby a stimulus or insult at a sensitive period of time has lasting effect on the structure and function of the body

12

What is the Barker hypothesis?

the impact of poor foetal nutrition across different sensitive periods results in changes in body structure and function which prepare the baby for austerity

13

What are the risk factors in the adverse childhood experiences study?

abuse- emotional, physical or sexual
household challenges- mother treated violently, household substance abuse, mental illness in household, parental operation, criminal household behaviour
neglect - physical or emotional

14

What are the ACE risk factors for?

alcoholism
COPD
depression
foetal death
illicit drug use
liver disease
poor work performance
financial stress
risk of partner violence
STIs
smoking
suicide
unplanned pregnancies
risk of sexual violence
poor academic achievement

15

What can adverse childhood experience do?

disrupt neurodevelopment, causes social, emotional and cognitive impairment, adoption of health risk behaviours, disease, disability and morbidity, early death

16

What are possible interventions during the life course?

action of socioeconomic status
action on parenting support
earlier permanency
intervention at school
intervention through gangs
intervention in prison

17

what is the definition of a drug?

a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well being

18

What are the social impacts of drugs and alcohol?

employment
crime
relationships
child care

19

what are the health impacts of drugs and alcohol?

minor symptoms
GP consultations
infections
hospitalisations
affection services
death

20

What are the determinants of drug use?

availability
affordability
social acceptability
promotion

21

What is contained in cigarettes?

nicotine
carbon monoxide
tar
arsenic, cyandie, ammonia, acetone, benzene, formaldehyde, cadmium, hydrogen cyanide etc

22

What is addiction?

compulsive physiological and psychological need for a habit-forming substance
characterised by compulsive drug-seeking and use even in face of negative health consequences

23

What effect does nicotine have?

stimulates adrenal glands - increases heart rate, BP, breathing, release glucose, surpasses insulin
Binds to "nicotinic" ACH receptors - brain creates more receptors, if these are not activated causes cravings
Dopamine is also released in response to nicotine - pleasure pathway - enjoyment and relaxation
tolerance is quickly acquired

24

What is second hand smoke associated with?

SIDs
Asthma
lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, bronchitis
glue ear
bacterial meningitis

25

What are examples of oestrogen and progesterone contraceptives?

combined pill
patch
vaginal ring

26

What are examples of progesterone only contraceptives?

progesterone only pill
injectable
implant
progesterone release IUD (mirena coil)

27

What are examples of barrier methods of contraceptives?

condom - male and female
diaphragm and cervical caps

28

What are natural methods of contraception?

billings (mucus)
temperature
rhythm
withdrawal
persona

29

What types of sterilisation are there?

female - tubal ligation
male - vasectomy

30

What factors influence contraceptive choice?

knowledge and understanding of method
personal features - e.g forgetfulness
method characteristics
lifestyle and occupation
motivation not to be pregnant
alcohol and drug use
peer / partner pressures
embarrassed to discuss with health professional
concerns re confidentiality
poor access to services
cultural / religious influences

31

Who are at increased risk of STIs?

adolescents
men who have sex with men
people from or who partners from, countries with high rates of STIs
frequent partner change
previous bacterial STI
early onset sexual activity
alcohol or substance abuse

32

What are the fraser guidelines?

the young person understands the professional's advise
the young person cannot be persuaded to tell their parents
the young person is likely to begin, or to continue having, sexual intercourse with or without contraception
unless the young person receives contraception, their physical or mental health, or both, are likely to suffer
the young person's best interests require them to receive contraceptive advise or treatment with or without parental consent

33

What shows that a young person has capacity?

they are able to;
understand the treatment, its purpose and nature and why it is being proposed
understand the benefits, risks and alternatives
understand in broader terms what the consequences of treatment will be
retain the information for long enough to use it and weight it up in order to arrive at a decision