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Flashcards in Limbs and back week 2 Deck (48):
1

briefly describe tendons

dense regularly arranged tissue that attach muscle to bone
highest tensile strength of all connective tissue
high proportion of collagen
closely packed parallel arranged in direction of force

2

Describe the composition of tendons

dense connective tissue (parallel fibres of collagen I)
sparsely vascularised
cellular (fibroblasts / tenocytes ) - 20%
Extracellular (80%) 70% water, 30% solids - collagen I, ground substance, elastin, collagen III

3

What is the origin and insertion of the supraspinatous muscle?

supraspinous fossa
greater tubercle

4

What is the function of the supraspinatous?

assists in the abduction of the nerve

5

What is the innervation of the supraspinatous?

supra scapular nerve

6

What is the origin and insertion of teres minor?

axillary border
greater tubercle

7

What is the function of teres minor?

external rotation

8

What is the innervation of theres minor?

axillary nerve

9

What is the origin and insertion of infraspinatous?

infraspinatous border
greater tubercle

10

What is the function of the infraspinatous?

external rotation

11

What is the innervation of infraspinatous?

supra scapular nerve

12

What is the origin and insertion of subscapularis?

sub scapular fossa
lesser tubercle

13

What is the function of subscapularis?

internal roation

14

What is the innervation of subscapularis?

supra-scapular nerve

15

What are risk factors associated with tendon injuries?

older age
attrition (wear and tear)
bone spurs
acromion shape
tendonopathy leading to tears
trauma (mostly acute)
genetic

16

What are the two types of tendon injury?

acute and chronic

17

What tests can be used to assess the supraspinatous?

ROM - forward elevation / abduction
Strength - arms out in scapular plane - don't let me push your arms down

18

What tests can be used to examine infraspinatous and teres minor?

ROM - external rotation with elbow at side
Strength - arms tucked in and resisted external rotation

19

What tests can be used to examine subscapularis?

ROM - thumb behind back
Strength - belly press / push off behind back

20

What are non-operative treatment options for rotator cuff tears?

physiotherapy
injection (steroid / local anaesthetic ) for pain
analgesia

21

What are surgical treatment options for rotator cuff tears?

repair tendon to bone - arthroscopic / open surgery
platelet rich plasma injection?

22

What is involved in the physiotherapy treatment of rotator cuff tears?

early controlled mobilisation

23

what are the joints of the shoulder?

glen-humeral joint
accromio-clavicular joint

24

What are the roots of the axillary nerve?

C5 and C6

25

What muscles are innervated by the axillary nerve?

teres minor and deltoid

26

What are the roots of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5, C6, C7

27

What muscles are innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve?

coracobrachialis, brachial, biceps bracchi

28

What are the roots of the radial nerve?

C5, C6, C7, C8, T1

29

What muscles are innervated by the radial nerve?

triceps brachia, extensor and supinator muscles

30

What are the roots of the ulnar nerve?

(C7) C8, T1

31

What muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve?

antebrachial, hypothenar, deep intrinsic muscles of the hand

32

What are the roots for the median nerve?

C6, C7, C8, T1

33

What muscles are innervated by the median nerve

ante brachial, thenar muscles, some lumbricles

34

What are the 3 layers of blood vessels?

tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia

35

Describe the tunica intima

a single layer of squamous epithelium
provides a smooth, friction-reducing lining for the vessel

36

Describe the tunica media

smooth muscle, connective tissue (elastic fibres)
vasoconstriction and vasodilation to control BP

37

Describe the tunica externa

made of fibrous connective tissue
protective and supporting layer

38

Describe anastmoses

arterioles communicating with another form anastomoses
anatomical - circle of Willis in the brain
functional - mesenteric vessels of the GI tract

39

Describe collateral circulation

enlargement of vascular results in collateral circulation
small arteries anastomose more frequently and can result in extensive networks allowing ongoing perfusion

40

name peripheral pulses

temporal
carotid
brachial
popliteal
dorsalis
posterior tibial

41

Give examples of some non-modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis

increasing age
male sex
family history

42

Give examples of some modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis

hyperlipidaemia
hypertension
smoking
diabetes
obesity

43

What is an aneurism?

localised dilation of the affected artery over 50% normal diameter

44

What are some causes of aneurism?

atherosclerotic
congenital
post-stenotic
traumatic
inflammatory
mycotic

45

What is an embolism?

the blockage of a blood vessel by solid, liquid, or gas at a site distant from its origin

46

Describe the triple helix structure of collagen

3 polypeptide chains
each chain is a polipropine helix
each chain folds into triple helix
each chain has a repeating glycine-X-Y residue

47

Describe collagen maturation

formation of collagen alpha chain in the ER
3 come together, spontaneously form triple helix
moved to golgi
pumped out into the extracellular space
proteins interact to form fibrils - aggregates
larger than the cells that secreted them

48

What are the most common results of sport injuries?

fractures and dislocations
major muscle - ligament - tendon injuries
head and spinal injuries
chest and abdominal injuries