Kingdom: Plantae Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kingdom: Plantae Deck (64):
1

List six principle types of plant tissue and the function of each.

Epidermal: protection
Parenchyma: storage
Collenchyma: support
Vascular: transport
Meristematic: growth
Schlerenchyma: support

2

What are two types of meristem?

Apical meristem: responsible for plant primary growth; located at tips of stems and roots.

Lateral meristem: cylinders of meristematic tissue; responsible for plant secondary growth. Two types vascular cambium, cork cambium.

3

What are the four major layers of tissue in the leaf?

Upper and lower epidermis.
Palisade layer of mesophyll
spongy layer of mesophyll
Vascular bundles (veins)

4

What is a stomata?

A small opening bordered by guard cells in the epidermis of plant leaves and stems. Gases (Carbon dioxide and water) are exchanged through them.

5

What are guard cells?

Pairs of bean-shaped epidermal cells that surround a stomate and regulate its size. Guard cells possess chloroplasts.

6

What are upper epidermis?

The upper layer of cells on a leaf; do not contain chloroplasts.

7

What are the lower epidermis?

The lower layer of cells on a leaf; do not contain chloroplasts. Stomata are usually found in this layer.

8

What are mesophyll?

The chlorophyll-containing cells located between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf; vascular tissues (veins) run through mesophyll.

9

What is a cuticle?

A waxy coating secreted by the epidermis of a leaf; helps prevent water loss through evaporation.

10

What is the palisade layer?

The palisade layer is located in the upper mesophyll of leaf tissue; it is closely packed columnar cells that contain many chloroplasts.

11

What is the spongy Layer?

The spongy layer in the leaf mesophyll under the palisade layer; the loosely-packed, chlorophyll-containing cells are surrounded by air spaces.

12

What are the two types of vascular tissue, and what is their location?

Xylem and phloem are both organised into fibrovascular bundles in the leaf, root and stem.

13

What is the Xylem?

In vascular plants, the non-living transport tubes that cary water and minerals upward from the roots and stem to the rest of the plant.

14

What is the Phloem?

In vascular plants the living cells arranged into transport tubes that carry sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.

15

What are cortex tissues?

Located just inside the epidermis in the plant stem or root; consists of parenchyma in young plants and includes cork in older plants.

16

What is Cambium?

A layer of meristem tissue in plant stems and roots that produces new xylem and phloem cells; accounts for growth in thickness of the stem.

17

What is the Pith?

The tissue in the centre of a plant stem or root of a vascular cylinder; usually consists of parenchyma.

18

What are four significant functions of the plant root?

Anchorage
Absorption
transport
storage

19

What are the two major functions of the plant leaf?

Photosynthesis
transpiration.

20

State the our fundamental functions of the plant stem.

Support
transport
storage
photosynthesis

21

What is Transpiration?

The loss of water from plant leaves usually through the stomata.

22

What are three methods of thranslocation of water in plants?

Capillary action
root pressure
transpirational pull

23

Capillary action

The upward movement of a liquid in a thin tube resulting from the effect of cohesion and adhesion.

24

What is root pressure?

The pressure developed in root xylem as the result of osmosis.

25

What is a transpirational pull (Cohesion tension?)

Evaporating water from plant parts causes an upward pull on a column of water molecules in the xylem below.

26

What is photoperiodism?

a Physiological response to the day length such as the production of flowers by a plant depending on the daily cycle of light and dark.

27

What is tropism?

The response of a plant to the environment. Eg. Geotropism, thigmotropism, phototropism.

28

What is Geotropism?

A root growing downward (positive geotropism) or a stem growing upward (negative geotropism) in response to the stimulus of gravity.

29

What is phototropism?

A stem or leaves growing toward a light stimulus.

30

What is Thigmotropism?

Unequal growth in a plant that results from contact with an object. For example, a vine clinging to an object as it grows.

31

Name there toes of plant hormones?

Auxins
gibberellins
cytokinins.

32

What is an Auxin

A plant growth hormone that controls cell elongation.

33

What is Gibberellin?

A plant hormone that causes elongation of plant stems.

34

What is Cytokinin?

A plant hormone that promotes cell division in growing tissue.

35

What is phytochrome?

A plant pigment that absorbs light and is involved with photoperiodism.

36

What is a blade?

A broad portion of a leaf.

37

What is a petiole?

The stalk that connects the leaf blade to the stem.

38

What is a bud?

A mound of growing tissue between the base of a petiole and the leaf stem; may give rise to a branch shoot.

39

What is Bark?

All tissues outside of the vascular cambium in a woody stem. (cross-section of tree shown; bark is outermost ring)

40

What is a root hair?

Single cell extensions of plant epidermal cells; they absorb water and minerals.

41

What are Tubers?

An underground stem modified for food storage.
Examples
potato
yam
turnip
carrot.

42

What are Sori?

Tiny brown sport cases located on the underside of the elves of true ferns.

43

What are gametophytes?

A haploid plant that produces gametes by mitosis.

44

What is a sporophyte?

A diploid plant that produces spores by meiosis.

45

What is a carpel?

The female reproductive organ of a flower; consists of the ovary; the style; and the stigma. Also called the pistil.

46

What is an Ovule?

A structure in seed plants that develop in the ovary and contain the egg.

47

What is the stigma?

In angiosperm flowers, the stigma is the region of the carpel that is the receiving surface for the pollen.

48

What is the Stamen?

The pollen - producing (male) organ of a flower; consisting of an anther and a filament.

49

What is Pollen?

A grain containing an immature male gametophyte enclosed in a protective outer covering.

50

What is pollination?

The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma can be by wind, water, animals etc.

51

What is an annual?

A seed plant that completes its life cycle in one year.
Eg. Wheat, beans, cotton and marigold.

52

What is an biennial?

A plant that completes its life cycle in two years.
eg Carrots and foxgloves.

53

What is a perennial?

A plant whose life cycles is several years; it produces flowers on more than one occasion.
most trees, flowers and shrubs.

54

what does deciduous mean?

Plants that shed their leaves during certain seasons.
eg. maple, and oak trees.

55

What are Bryophyta?
Class: Hepaticae (liverworts)

Flat leaf-like structure.
simple root-like structures.
Example Marchantia.

56

What are Bryophyta?
Class: Musci (mosses)

small, usually erect with stem.
capsule contains spores.
Example: sphagnum.

57

What are Tracheophyta?
Subphylum: Lycopsids.

Creeping stems.
Examples: club moss, ground pines.

58

What are tracheophyta.
Subphylum: sphenopsids.

Scale-like leaves.
Spores in cone-like structures.
Examples: equisetum, scouring rush.

59

What are Tracheophyta?
Class: Filicineae (true ferns)

Spores on leaves or special structures.
Examples: royal fern, Boston fern.

60

What are Tracheophyta?
Class: Gymnosperms?

Naked seeds, often in cones; needle - like leaves; mostly evergreen, but some deciduous (e.g., larch). Examples; pine, hemlock, spruce.

61

What are Tracheophyta?
Class: Angiosperms

Flowering plants
seeds enclosed in fruit or nut
broad leaves.

62

Tracheophyta
Class: Angiosperms
Sub-Class: Dicotyledons

Net-veined leaves
Seeds with Two cotyledons
Flower parts in fours or fives.
eg. roses and beans.

63

Tracheophyta
Class: Angiosperms
Sub-class Monocotyledons.

Parallel-veined leaves
seed with one cotyledon
flower parts in multiple of threes.
Corn, lily and grass.

64

What is a Cotyledon?

Seed leaf; fleshy part of a seed that stores food and encloses a young plant.