Flashcards in Evolution/ Classification Deck (17):
What is natural selection?
An evolutionary mechanism where the members of a population that are most suited (adapted) to their environment will most likely survive and reproduce.
What are adaptions?
Characteristics that increase the chance that an organism will survive and reproduce in a certain environment.
What are homologies?
Structural similarities that indicate a common evolutionary ancestry; useful in classification.
Examples: bird wing, whale flipper, human arm.
Name five examples of evidence that support the Theory of Evolution?
3. Vestigial structures.
4. Molecular comparisons, e.g. DNA.
5. Similar embryonic development.
What is a Vestigial structure?
Structures with o apparent function but those presence may indicate a common evolutionary origin with organisms having similar functional structures.
Example: the Human appendix.
What is adaptive Radiation?
The evolution of many species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment that has a diversity of conditions. Also called divergent evolution.
Examples: Darwins finches, marsupials of Australia.
What is a taxonomy
The science of the classification of organisms. Also called systematics.
What is Binomial Nomenclature?
The naming system (devised by Linnaeus) where every organism is assigned a two-word Lain name. The first word is the genus name, the second is a descriptive modifier.
Examples: Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera)
What is Phylogeny
The evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms; the pattern of descent.
What are the levels of classification from the most general to the most specific?
Domain (least specific), Kindom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (most specific).
List three principle domains.
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya.
Describe the domain Archaea?
A group of single-celled micro-organisms that have no cell nucleus nor any other membrane bound organelles within their cells.
They have biochemical differences from bacteria.
Generally similar to bacteria in size and shape.
Contrast from bacteria in that they posses genes more closely related to those of eukaryotes.
Reproduce asexually and divide by binary fission, fragmentation, or budding.
no known species produce spores.
List four kingdoms in the domain Eukarya.
What are the three major groups of protists?
What are the nine phyla of animals?
What are the four phyla of plant divisions?
Nonvascular plants: Bryophyta (mosses, liverworts)
vascular seedless plants: (Pterophyta (ferns)
Vascular seed plants: Gymnosperms, Coniferophyta, Conifers.
Flowering plants: Anthophyta, Angiosperms.