Flashcards in Human Locomotion Deck (17):
What are the five important function of bones?
-Support of the body.
protection of organs (brain, spinal cord, thoracic organs).
movement (place of attachment for muscles)
storage of fat, minerals.
Blood cell formation.
What is Cartilage?
A connective tissue found in vertebrate skeletons. In adult vertebrates, much of it is converted into bone.
Contrast compact bone and spongy bone.
Compact bone is dense and smooth-looking. Spongy bone is composed of small flat pieces of bone and contains open spaces.
Campare and contrast: tendons and ligaments.
They are both fibrous tissue. Tendons attach muscles to bones, while ligaments connect bones to bones.
Name the three bones of the arm. (excluding the hand)
Humerus (upper arm) Radius and Ulna.
Name the four bones of the leg.
Femur, Tibia, Fibula and patella.
Describe what a joint is?
A place where two or more bones meet.
What are the three basic types of joints and their locations?
ball and socket joint. Shoulder and hip.
Hinge joint: knee, elbow.
Immovable joint : skull
What is Periosteum?
The double-layered membrane that surrounds long bones. It contain blood vessels and nerve fibbers and is the place of attachment for tendons and ligaments.
What are the Haversian canals?
Narrow channels within long bones; they contain nerve cells and blood vessels.
Name there types of muscle tissue and their location in the body. Identify each as voluntary or involuntary.
- Striated / skeletal: attached to the bone (voluntary).
- Smooth: blood vessels and digestive organs (involuntary)
- Cardiac: heart - involuntary rhythmic contractions; striated.
State three primary functions of muscle tissue.
- posture maintenance
- heat generation.
What are the two major components of muscle cell microfilaments? (mayofilaments) ?
Actin and Myosin.
What is sarcoplasm?
The cytoplasm of striated (skeletal) muscle cell.
What is myoglobin?
Red pigment, related to haemoglobin, that stores oxygen within the muscle cells.
What are sarcomeres?
The microscopic functional unit of a muscle cell.