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Flashcards in Human Circulation/Immunology Deck (33)
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Name the four chambers of the heart.

Right Atrium
Left Atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle


Compare the Atrium and the ventricles

The two atria are located at the top of the heart and receive incoming blood from the body.
The two ventricles are below the atria and pump blood out of the heart to the body.


Compare artery and veins

Artery: a thick-walled vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues.
Vein: a vessel that carries blood from the tissues to the heart.


What is the aorta?

The major artery of the body. It carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body.


What is the vena cavae?

The largest vein in the body; it brings blood from all parts of the body (except the lungs) to the right atrium.


What is the pulmonary artery?

A blood vessel leading from the right ventricle to the lungs. Contains deoxygenated blood.


What is the pulmonary vein?

A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.


What are capillaries?

Tiny thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smallest attires and veins and allows the exchange of nutrients and wage between the blood and tissues.


What are Arteriole and Venule?

Small arteries and small veins.


What is the Hepatic Vein?

A vessel that carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava.


Summarise the circulatory route in the body. Begin with blood returning to the heart.

Vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lung capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta.


What are the four principal organs of the immune system?

Lymph nodes.
bone marrow.


What is lymph fluid?

A watery fluid that originates from blood plasma; contained in small vessels called lymphatics. It is similar to interstitial fluid.


Thoracic (Lymphatic Duct)

Large duct that receives lymph drained from entire lower body as well as the upper left extremity and left side of the head and thorax. (chest cavity)


What are lymph Nodes?

Small lymphatic organ that filters dead cells and foreign particles from the lymph; contains macrophages and lymphocytes.


What is plasma?

The liquid part of the blood; contains water, proteins alts, sugars and fats.


What are the three cellular components of blood?

- red blood cells ( erythrocytes)
White blood cells (leukocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)
Platelets are cell fragments.


What are stem cells?

A precursor cell to both red and white blood cells; found in the bone marrow.


What are Leukocytes?

White blood cells:

first line of defines against invading micro-organisms.
includes lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes.


What are Macrophages?

A white blood cell that ingests infectious bacteria and foreign particles via phagocytosis.


What are monocytes?

a large, circulating white blood cell, formed in bone marrow and in the spleen, that ingests foreign material.


What are T Lymphocytes?

A type of white blood cell involved with cell-mediated immunity and interactions with B cells; produced in the thymus.


What are B Lymphocytes?

A type of white blood cell that is capable of making and selecting a specific type of antibody once it comes into contact with the corresponding antigen.


What are erythrocytes?

Red blood cells: produced in bone marrow; containing haemoglobin, lacks a nucleus when mature.


What is haemoglobin?

An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that caries oxygen,


What are Platelets?

A cell fragments in the blood that releases substances to begin clot formation.


What are the four blood types resulting for the ABL blood group.

A, B, AB, O.


What is agglutination.

Clumping of cells induced by an interaction between antibodies and antigens.


What is an Antigen?

An antigen is a foreign substance (usually protein or poly saccharide_ that induces an immune response and interacts with specific antibodies.


What an an Antibody?

A protein that is produced by lymphocytes in response to a foreign antigen; antigens bind to antigens to cause agglutination.