Flashcards in Reproduction/Development Deck (39):
List three types of asexual reproduction.
What is binary fission?
The nucleus of a fully grown cell divides and the cell splits into two equal-sized daughter cells.
Eg amoeba and bacteria.
What is budding?
Fully gorwn cell or organism forms a small cell or outgrowth (bud) that splits from the parent and develops into a separate organism. Eg yeast.
What is spore formation?
Tiny cells (spores) from in spore cases. They are scattered around when the case bursts. Each spore becomes a new organism.
What is regeneration?
The ability of some organisms to grow back missing body parts. eg. starfish, lobster.
What is fertilisation?
The method of reproduction in animals and plants. the two uniting gamets are different in size shape and activity.
What are gamates?
A sex cell; it joins with another gamete to form a single cell called a zygote, eg, sperm and eff shown at fertilisation.
What are the four basic parts of a flower?
Contrast stamen and pistil (carpel)
Reproductive organs of the flower. The stamen contains pollen and the pistil contains the ovules.
What is fruit?
Matured ovary that contains seeds.
Eg. tomatos, corn and apples.
What are zygotes?
The diploid cell that results from the union of a sperm and ovum (a fertilised egg)
What is cleavage?
A rapid series
What is cleavage?
A rapid series of cell divisions, without cell growth, in a fertilise egg, that evolves the zygote into a hollow ball of cells (blastula)
What is the blastula?
An early embroonic form consisting of a single layer of cells surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel.
What is the gastrula?
An embroy at the stage following blastula. A cellular cup, it consists of three layers: endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm.
What is the ectoderm?
The ectoderm is the outer cell layer of the gastrula; it develops into the skin and nervous system.
What is the endoderm?
The inner cell layer of the gastrula; it develops into the internal organs such as the digestive tract.
What is the mesoderm?
The middle cell layer of the gastrula; it develops into muscles, bone, blood etc.
What is the notochord?
Composed of mesoderm cells, it serves as the primitive support column for the embryo until it is replaced by the spinal column.
What is the archenteron?
The central cavity of the gastrula, which ultimately forms the digestive cavity.
What is parthenogenesis?
The ability for eggs to develop into organisms without being fertilised. Present in bees, ants and some lizards.
What does Ovoviviparous mean?
Refers to animals that retain the fertilised eggs in their body until they hatch. Present in guppies, mosquitofish and some reptiles.
What does Oviparous mean?
Refers to animals that lay eggs that develop outside of the mothers body. Present in fish, birds, reptiles and monotremems (platypus)
What are testes?
Male gonads; produce sperm and male sex hormones.
What is semen?
In reptiles and mammals a mixture of sperm and several liquids released from the penis during intercourse.
What is the ovary?
In most female mammals, the organ which produces and stores mature eggs before their release into the uterus. Produces female sex hormones.
What is ovulation?
The release of a mature eff (ovum) from its follicle in the ovary into the fallopian tube.
What is the uterus?
In most female mammals, a hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops before birth.
What are the fallopian tubes?
One of the two tubes in the human female through which a mature egg passes into the uterus after being released from the ovary.
What is the placenta?
The organ through which nourishment and waste products are exchanged between the mother and the embryo.
What is the umbilical cord?
Structure that connects the placenta to the fetus; contains blood vessels.
What is Amniotic fluid?
Surrounds the fetus
provides a cushioning environment for protection
Enclosed by the amniotic membrane amnion.
What is the menstrul cycle?
The development and release of a mature egg for fertilisation as well as the preparation of the uterus for receiving the fertilised eggs; regulated by hormones.
What are the four stages of the menstrual cycle?
Summarise the reproduction of the fish?
Bunderds to millions of eggs
externally fertilised and developed
little or no care of young.
Summarise the reproduction of amphibia?`
Up to hundreds of eggs
external fertilization (many have internal fertilization.
Develop in water
care for young vaires from none to much.
What is metamorphosis?
The life changes (both structural and behavioural.Of an amphibian as it evolves from water to land dweller. Also refes to insert developments.
Summarise the reproduction of birds.
Up to a few eggs.
care of young lasts several weeks.