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Flashcards in L11, Data analysis 2 - qualitative Deck (20)
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Analysing data

Important to trace requirements and "who said what"



use multiple sources of data to understand the same thing. use several methods. Qualitative data ofter useful to interpret quantitative data.


What is the purpose of user studies?

1. Tro understand the use-system

2. to analyses is the process of getting from unstructured data to a clear requirement picture


How could one look at user requirements?

User requirements is a part of all requirements that have to be handled in a product development process

—> requirements according to law
—> technological requirements


How do you go from customer information to technical requirements?

1. one could consider a direct interpretation and transfer the information from interviews, observations etc. to requirements


Name some risks with regards to transforming sutomer information to technical requirements?

1. overlook important information

2. Draw conclusions on basis that one remembers most clearly

3. Draw conclusions on basis of what made the strongest impression

4. overlook information that does not confirm one's pre-assumptions


How to overcome the risk when interpreting the customer needs?

One should treat and analyze the information in a systematic way in order to reduce any bias


Name the steps of analyzing data!

1. Reduce data

2. Analyze the reduced data using different methods and tools

3. Identify and search for:
—> typical or untypical values, claims, comments
—> stated or enacted problems, the causes of problems
—> sated requirements, wishes
—> search for patterns

4. Formulate requirements for the future solution in two steps
—> 1. customer requirements
—> 2. Technical requirements

Important with traceability of requirements



— It is often useful to triangulate, i.e. to use multiple data sources to better understand the user

— Qualitative data is often useful to interpret the quantitative data.


Give an example of compensating behavior!

putting a bowl in the coffee machine for it not to drop


Describe the process of the passenger flow experiment!

1. Identification of passenger categories
2. warm-up exercise
3. Distributions of travel plans
4. Distribution of baby stroller and luggage
5. First journey
6. Coffe break
7. Second journey
8. Questionnaire
9. Focus group interview


What did they study in the passenger flow experiment?

1. only to be allowed to enter the bus in the forward door
2. to have a forth door
3. foldable seats
4. new front part of the bus
6. The validity of the experiment


what were the analysis based on for having a fourth door?

1. dwewll times
2. observations
3. door choise
4. participants answers ti questionnaires
5. quotes from participants


How to plan the analyses?

1. what questions do I want answered?

2. What analysis must be done to answer that question

3. What data collection method provides the kind of data needed for my analyses


How to deal with qualitative data?


1. Compile all comments
2. Read through the comments
—> code for each participant
3. Reduce data
4. Group the comments according to different themes


How to deal with interview analysis?

1. read through transcripts
2. search for relevant comments, statements etc.
3. Add code for each respondent
—> enable tracking of comments
4. search for relevant themes
—> investigate what aspects are re-occurring in the comments
5. Matrices provide a good overview both across questions and across individuals


Name some tools to use inorder to analys qualitative data?

1. KJ method
2. tree diagrams
3. fishbone diagrams

Metods are there to force you to spend time on your data. They do not simply lead to clear, in-deph requirement picture


Describe the KJ method

KJ=Jiro Kawakita
1. Write statements on post-its and put on the wall
2. Group the statements according to similarity/ Themes


Steps of turning information into a specification?

The stages involve interpretation, translation and transformation but definitely NOT transformation only.


How may requirements be expressed?

1. requirements, statements
2. descriptions of probems
3. descriptoins of how problems have been solved
4. comparisons with other solutions
5. suggestions for sulutions
6. actions e.g. compensating behavior