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Flashcards in L9, Data collection 2 - qualitative Deck (50)
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Pros and cons with using available information?

1. inexpensive
—> data already there
2. available to see trends over the past

1. difficult to access
2. ethical issues concerning confidentiality
3. information may be imprecise or incomplete


Pros and cons with observations

1. more detailed and context-related information
2. tests reliability of responses in questionnaire

1. ethical issues with confidentiality and privacy
2. observation bias
3. presence of data collector high influence results
4. thorough training of research assistants is required


Pros and cons with interviewing?

1. suitable for use with both literates and illiterate
2.permits clarification of questions
3. has higher response rate than written questionnaires

1. The presence of the interview might influence the response

2. reports of events might may be less complete than with observations


Pros and cons with small scale flexible interview?

1. permits collection of in-depth information and exploration of spontaneous remarks by respondents

1. Interviewer might influence interviewer
2. analysis of open-ended data is more difficult and time-consuming


Pros and cons with larger scale fixed interview?

1. easy to analyze

1. Important information may be missed due to spontaneous remarks by respondents are not recorded or documented


Pros and cons with Adminestering questionnaires?

1. Less expensive
2. permits anonymity
—> honest results
3. no need for research asistance
4. eliminates bias due to phasing questions differently with respondents

1. cannot be used with illiterate respondents
2. often low rate of response
3. questions may be misunderstood


Pros and cons with participatory and projective methods?

1. provide rich data
2. positive spon offs for knowledge and skills by researchers and informants

1. require extra training of researchers


How should you make the choice of method for a market study?

It should be determined by the purpose of the study
— Is it explorative?
— Confirmative?

The purpose of market studies can be assumed to differ in different phases of the product development process


In what ways could requirements for solutions be expressed?

1. as descriptions of problems
2. as comparisons
3. as assumptions
4. as behaviors
5. as actions
6. as requirements
7. as solutions


How does requirements emerge?

1. they do NOT emerge in a vacuum

2. In a situation
—> "the use situation"
—> "the use system"

3. the methods chosen must be able to grasp this system


The choice of method is a matter of four different choices!

1. data collection method
2. participants
3. context
4. Mediating tool /stimuli


Choice of participants?

— The qualitative dimension?
— The quantitative dimension?

Depends in the sampling:
1. statistical sampling?
2. theoretical sampling?
—> choose participants with a particular property
3. Critical sampling?
4. Convenience sampling?


How can you divide users into groups?

1. The common
—> age
—> gender

2. Some other
—> product user experience
—> problem experience
—> interests
—> physical properties
—> personality


Some thoughts on participants?

1. Think about what characteristics are really important when you decide on your sampling strategy

2. participants should be part of the identified user group

3. avoid representatives of the users

4. should preferably have experience of the use
—>or experience of the problem


What kind of participants could be difficult to find?

1. elderly frail
2. busy people


what kind of participants are easy to find?

1. unemployed
2. students
3. women with academic background


the quantitative dimension of qualitative studies?

1. how many
—> the more the better

2. Find the saturation point

3. The rule of diminishing returns


How many people should be subject for qualitative studies according to literature?

1. Griffin and Hauser
—> 30 interviews = 99% requirements
—> 98% of customer requirements after 25 hours of interviews or focus groups

2. ulrish and eppinger
—> 10 is not enough
—> 50 is too many

3. virzi and Lewis
—> 12-20 people


What are the two main categories for data collection methods?

1. Question-based methods

2. Observation-based methods


Question-based methods?

1. one-to-one interview
—> in-depth interviews

2. group interviews

3. focus group interviews

4. surveys

5. Questionnaires
—> telephone
—> post
—> e-mail or the web


How should questions be structured?

1. Structured
The questions are formulated and the order of the questions are defined in advance

2. Semi-structure
—> Questions are formulated in order to guarantee that certain topics are covered but without the exact formulation and the exact order may vary between interviews

3. unstructured
—> the interview governs the content of the interview
—> the interviewer's role is more passive.
—> the questions are not formulated in advance


How should the questions be structured in general?

1. Move from the general tp the more specific
—> as a funnel

2. Move from the neutral topics the more "sensitive! topics

3. Move from questions on facts to questions which require reflection and evaluation


Interview technique?

1. Probing
—> what do you mean?
—> why?
—> can you demonstrate?

2. Confirming questions
—> have I understood you correctly…?


How should the questions be formulated?

1. be specific
—> only one question at the time

2. Not be complicated
—> do not elaborate too much in the questions

3. Be formulated in terms that could be understood without problems
—> terms that are used by the target group

4. You should not be leading

5. Be neutral
—> don't be loaded in any direction (positive, negative=

6. do not include "prestige bias"

7. minimize demands on memory

8. Avoid to be hypothetical


Describe open and closed questions

1. Open questions
—> requires explanations
—> develops the diaglog

2. closed questions
—> concern confirmations or denials
—> have you (or not)
—> is it (or is it not)?
—> Can you (or can't you)?


Give an example of a question put as opened and close!

Do you think it's difficult to book a ticket on the company's websight?

What are your thoughts about booking a ticket on the company's web sight?


What is an indirect question?

1. An indirect question directs the interviewee's attention to another person (or to other persons) than the interviewee

2. Can be a way to adress more sensitive questions or areas where a true answer may not be anticipated

— Do you use the safety devices

— Do people working here use the safety devices?


What factors will influence the quality of the interview?

1. The interviewer
—> social skills
—> training and experience
—> motivation
—> safety, security

2. The content
—> sensitivity
—> complecity
—> interest.

3. The situation
—> time
—> place
—> other people

4. The interviewee
—> social skills
—> ability to answer
—> safety, security


Tips on interviewing?

1. don't be afraid of silence

2. try not to pose leading questions

3. use probing

4. let the interviewee lead the conversation

5. do not let the interviewee lead the conversation in the wrong direction

6. do pre-tests of your interview guide

7. mediating tools are useful


what is probing?

what do you mean?
can you demonstrate?