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Explain the differences between exploratory and confirmatory research in the early phases of the product development



Explain what is meant by primary research and exemplify the information sources that can be used



Relate different types of research methods/tools to different market research purposes



Plan and execute a study eliciting customer needs and requirements including purposeful choice between different methods and tools for eliciting, analyzing, communicating and documenting customer needs and requirements



Describe the principles of and apply the analysis tools for analyzing qualitative and quantitative data respectively



Why should we do a quantitative market research?

Because we don't know:
1. what customer actually need
2. what's on their mind or how their situation is changing
3. what they are unhappy about
4. what is driving happyness
5. How many customers of different types there are out there?
6. How customers select a vendor, search for information, decide where to shop
7. What drives the choice of one product over another
8. How much they are willing to pay
9. How many buy at this price


Give examples of quantitative research!

1. Asking
—> surveys
2. Observing
—> big data
3. Arrange stimuli
—> experiments
—> choice modeling


What is a survey?

1. Survey research entails the collection of data on a number of units
2. Usually at a single juncture in time, with a view to collect systematically a body of quantifiable data in respect of a number of variables

THEN examined to discern patterns of association


Central features of a survey

1. the use if a FIXED set of questions directed to a large set of respondents

2. The collection of a small amount of data in standardized and quantified form from a relatively large number of individuals

3. The selection of representative samples of individuals from known populations


Describe the survey research process

1. planning
2. Questionnaire design
3. Decide on sample size and source
4. Pretest survey
5. administer survey
6. Survey data analysis


What should be done during the survey planning?

1. state purpose of the study
2. Identify kinds of information of interest
3. Identify population to be surveyed
4. Indicate sample size and source


Give examples of purpose of survey!

1. Understand how satisfied our customers are

2. Determine sizes of market segments

3. Understand product usage and ownership

4. estimate purchase intention during next year

5. Evaluate and compare brand image and perception

6. Tracking changes in customer demographics and product usage over time


What information should be interesting and should be include in the survey (examples)

1. user demographics
2. usage patterns
3. enchanted problems
4. ability to pay
5. knowledge of own and competitor brand


How do you identify population to be surveyed?


A good sample is essential for the generalizability of the results, but it is very hard to get


What is a sampling population?

The total set of people that are related to a particular investgation


What is a sample?

A selection from the population


What is a sample frame?

The source from which the selection is made
—> the payroll of a company
—> the phone directory
—> the national census
—> the car brand club members


what different sample types are there?

1. Probability samples
2. Non- probability samples
3. Census


What is a probability sample?

The probability for selection of each individual is known

Statistical methods assume probability samples

— simple random sampling
— systematic sampling
— stratified random sampling
— cluster sampling
— multistage sampling

— large number of respondents (+100)


what is a non-probability sample?

The researches uses the judgement to select respondents suitable for the purpose

— quota samling
— dimensional sampling
— convenience sampling
— purposive sampling
— snowball sampling


What is a census sample?

The whole population is surveyed

Financially viable when the population is very small


Describe the process of questionnaire design!

1. Generate list of potential topics and kind of information to be collected

2. Construct a first draft
—> including actual questions and answer categories
—> re-use own questions or from existing questionnaires

3. Put it aside for a few days, then revise

4. Circulate for the comments and critique

5. produce another draft

6. circulate comments

7. produce final draft

8. pre-test

9. produce final version


Advice for questionnaire in general

1. maximize the reward and minimize the costs for responding

2. shorter is better

3. cluster contents and seek natural flow

4. place demographics and classification data last

5. starting with relevant & interesting questions

6. professional appearance


Advice for question phrasing in the questionnaire

1. keep it simple
2. be specific
3. ask mostly closed-ended questions
4. always ask some open-ended questions
5. mnimize demands on memory
6. match questions to how the market works

7. avoid loaded questions


Advice regarding answer categories in questionnaires?

1. use the right number of answer of answer categories
—> yes-no is sometimes enough

2.distinguish between bipolar and unipolar responses
—> BIPOLAR: qualitative answer categories
—> UNIPOLAR: quantitative from 0-100% e.g.

3. attend to the interaction of the answer categories

4. Beware of including don't know and not applicable

5. prefer ratings over rankings


What different types of question are there?

1. categorization
B2C: age, gender, income, education, current brand
B2B: employees, turnover, role in company

2. Descriptive questions
—> How often do you use our product
—>what is the frequency of product X

3. Rating scales
—> how satisfied are you with our product's performance


Create a small questioner to understand customer needs of a industrial forklift!

1. what is the turnover of your company
< 10 MEUR, 10-100 MEUR, >100 MEUR>

2. How many employees do you have?
< 100, 100-500, 500-500, >5000>

3. What is the average daily driving distance?

4. Maximum shelf height

5 current brand

The ergonomics of forklifts is not affecting pain in the body
< strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree>
It doesn't matter if we have different types of brands of the fork lifter


How do you decide on sample size and source?

1. what levels of confidence and precision do you want from your study

2. how many respondents are needed to reach desired levels of confidence and precision?

3. Given number of responses, what can be claimed about confidence level and precision?


Formula for computing sample size N?

N=Z^2*variance/ precision^2

Z= confidence level= how likely would be to get the same difference by chance alone if there really is no difference in the population between categories represented by your group

= the variance in the population of the quantity to be estimated
= the average of the squared deviations of individual scores from the mean

Precision= the decision maker's tolerable margin of error (compare with confidence interval)


Name some tools for surveys!

1. SurveyMonkey
3. SAS
5. Mentimeter