Flashcards in L119 Histology of the Nervous System Deck (20):
What are glial cells?
Supportive cells to neurons. Include Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Schwann Cells, Ependymal cells, Satellite cells of ganglia
Which cells provide immune function in the CNS?
Microglial cells are similar to macrophages.
What is the structure/function of ependymal cells?
Low columnar or cuboidal cells. These cells have no basement membrane! Sometimes are ciliated to aid with CSF flow.
Line the spinal cord and the choroid plexus of ventricular system.
True/False. Neurons have high metabolic and protein synethesis activity in general.
False. Neurons have high protein synthesis but low metabolic activity in general.
Which histological stain is best used to visualize sometimes and dendrites?
Silver stain (ex. golgi stain).
Which 3 components of neurons contribute to their morphologic appearance?
Intermediate filaments (permanent), Actin (dynamic, shape change), and Microtubules (dynamic, axon transport)
Explain what it means for the neuron to be polarized?
Signals are received by dendrites (projections/processes extending from the soma) and transmitted to other neurons via axons.
How does neuron cell receive and output signals?
The neuron receives input via passive electrotonic spread to its dendrites.
It delivers output via action potentials through the axon (taking advantage of Na/K pump driven membrane potential).
What neuron characteristics are visible on H&E?
Nissl bodies are protein synthezing machinery (rough er, ribosomes, etc). They stain darkly blue in neurons.
Neurons synthesize ++ protein to build cytoskeleton, ion channels, receptors, etc.
What are the passive and active support functions of astrocytes?
Neurotransmitter uptake & degradation.
Maintenance of BBB
Neuronal energy supply
Injury response and recovery
Modulation of neuronal function
Modulation of blood flow
What type of stimuli may activate glial cells (astrocytes)?
Via modulations of intracellular calcium, initiated by neurotransmitters (ex. glutamate), trauma, spontaneous, or inflammatory mediators.
Describe the relationship of glutamate and GABA to neuron transmission?
Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter, there are glutamate transporters on glial cells.
GABA is an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter.
How do glial cells communicate with each other?
Like neuron's, glial cells also have synaptic vesicles and also conduct exocytosis.
How do glial cells actively regulate neural function?
Release of ATP from glia and subsequent calcium wave causes of chemicals from glial cells, inhibiting neuron activity.
Neurons become hyperpolarized in the presence of Calcium wave.
Describe the relationship of astrocytes with blood vessels?
Astrocytes wrap around blood vessels, close interaction--> integral to the Blood Brain Barrier.
Calcium release by astrocytes will cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation in adjacent blood vessels.
What is the function of oligodendrocytes and schwann cells? Describe their interaction with neurons?
These cells provide myelination of axons. Oligodendrocytes are present in the CNS and schwann cells are in the PNS.
Provide electrical insulation for axons to speed up conduction of impulses (same achieved through increasing axon diameter).
Oligodendrocytes wrap around several different axons. Schwann cells only interact with one axon.
What are nodes of ranvier?
Small gaps in between myelin sheath sections. They contain ion channels, allowing the impulse to jump accross to the next myelin sheath.
What is the role of microglia in the CNS?
The immune cells of the CNS. They are derived from bone morrow, and phagocytic but distinct from macrophages.
In response to injury or insult they will up-regulate growth factors and cytokines.
Structure of peripheral nerves?
Organize structure of PN from inside to outside.
These are composed of one or more bundles of nerve fibres, called Fascicles.
Each of these fascicles is surrounded by collagenous layer of perineurium.
If there is many fascicles, they will be surrounded by a larger collagenous tissue layer of Epineurium.
Within each fascicle/nerve bundle is a nerve cell and schwann cell sorrounded by loose vascular supporting tissue called Endoneurium.
--->Endoneurium-->Nerve fibre + schwann cell (b/c PNS)