Disorders of Language Flashcards Preview

MD2- Neuroscience Block > Disorders of Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of Language Deck (23):
1

Aphasia?

a disturbance in language as a result of brain damage

2

causes of acute onset aphasia?

stroke, penetrating head injury, surgery

3

causes of insidious onset progressive aphasia?

dementia, neoplastic change

4

causes of paroxysmal-episodic aphasia?

focal seizures, migraine

5

which hemisphere tends to dominate language?

LEFT hemisphere

6

what is the role of right hemisphere in speech?

non-propositional speech, prosody, and paralingistic aspects of speech

7

what is the main artery servicing the language center's?

Middle cerebral artery services the lateral aspects of frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes.

8

what are the divisions of the middle cerebral artery

superior division - servicing the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and sensorimotor cortex.

inferior division - servicing posteriorly to temporoparietal cortex and visual tracts

9

components of our language system? and damage to each component causes?

1. production of words -->non-fluent language disorders

2. Selection of words -- > fluent language disorders

10

what type of aphasia would an anterior lesion be expected to produce?

non-fluent aphasia
loss of grammatical structure
but intact selection of content

11

what type of aphasia would an posterior lesion be expected to produce?

fluent aphasia
impairment of content selection
but intact grammatical sequence

12

Broca's aphasia. Fluent or Non fluent?

Non fluent

13

Wernicke's aphasia. Fluent or non fluent?

Fluent.

14

Which middle cerebral artery branch would an ANTERIOR lesion be associated with?

superior division

15

Which middle cerebral artery branch would an POSTERIOR lesion be associated with?

inferior division

16

where is broca's area? how many gyri?

prefrontal cortex. two main gyri.

17

where is wernicke's area?

temporoparietal cortex

18

what is the white matter tract connecting broca's and wernicke's area? (hypothetical tract)

arcuate fasciculus

19

what are the features of wernicke's aphasia syndrome?

-FLUENT jargonistic language outputs (neologisms and paraphasic errors)
-impaired comprehension
-right quadrantanopia (defective vision in 1/4 of right vf)
-no motor weakness

20

what are the features of Broca's aphasia syndrome?

-NON FLUENT, highly effortful language output
-telegrammatic
-preserved comprehension
-right face and arm weakness

21

conduction aphasia?

fluent aphasia, not as severe as Wernicke's.
-poor repetition of words
-relatively intact basic comprehension of words

22

transcortical motor aphasia?

non fluent aphasia
this is muteness at its most severe
repetition is preserved

23

contralateral transfer vs ipsilateral reorganization

contralateral transfer may occur in the case of early hemispherectomy in neonates, motor and speech is mostly preserved.

ipsilateal reorganization tends to occur in adults post-stroke, tends to cause hemiparesis and language impairment.