Flashcards in Overview of brainstem organization Deck (25):
which fossa is brainstem located in and what are its borders?
posterior cranial fossa.
Rostral border is the mammillary bodies.
Caudal border is the pyramidal decussation.
characteristic gross dorsal and ventral features of the midbrain?
Dorsal: 2 pairs of bumps, superior and inferior colliculi
Ventral: cerebral peduncles
characteristic gross dorsal and ventral features of the pons?
linked with cerebellum.
limited by 4th ventricle.
facial colliculi at base.
cerebella peduncles attaching it to cerebellum dorsolaterally
characteristic gross dorsal and ventral features of the medulla?
and gracile nucleus
Rostrally two bulges called Olivary nuclei
Caudally are the pyramids descending to the pyramidal decussation.
what term and structures refers to the roof of the brainstem.
The "tectum". Superior and inferior colliculi at the rostral portion of the midbrain.
sheath covering the brainstem thats continuous with spinal cord.
contains the cranial nerves and reticular formation (reflexes)
What is the 'basis' of the brain stem important for?
descending motor control. attachments to the Cerebellum.
at what verterbra do spinal nerves end?
which cranial nerves are exclusively motor?
III (oculomotor), IV (abducens), VI (trochlear), XI (accessory), XII (hypoglossal)
which cranial nerves are exclusively sensory?
I (olfactory), II (optic), VIII (vestibulocochlear)
Which is the only cranial nerve that exits the brain stem via the dorsal surface?
Which nerves are mixed?
V (trigeminal), VII (facial), IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus)
which cranial nerves exit via the medulla?
IX to XII
which cranial nerves exit the pons?
V to VIII
which cranial nerves exit above the pons?
III and IV
where does the olfactory nerve exit?
cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
where does the optic nerve exit?
which embyrological plate do sensory nuclei develop from?
alar plate (dorsal)
which embyrological plate do motor nuclei develop from?
basal plate (ventral)
What are the rostral and caudal extents of the reticular formation
continuous with thalamus rostrally and intermediate gray of spinal cord caudally
function of the rostral and caudal reticular formation?
rostral: (midbrain and upper pons) maintain alert conscious state
caudal: (pons and medulla) motor reflexes and autonomic functions
3 major pathway traversing the brain stem?
-dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway
dorsal column medial lemniscus: function and location and decussation
ascending pathway through brain stem.
responsible for fine touch-tactile, and vibration.
decussates in medulla (medial lemniscus)
anterolateral system: function and location and decussation
ascending pathway through brain stem
responsible for pain.
decussates in spinal cord.