Memory disorders Flashcards Preview

MD2- Neuroscience Block > Memory disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory disorders Deck (16):

describe procedural memory?

long-term, implicit memory
-automized, slow accretion


describe semantic memory?

long-term, declarative memory

-not specific to the individual, these are shared facts


which aspects of memory is left hippocampus involved? Right hippocampus?

Left hippcampus: verbal memory
-list learning, story recall

Right hippocampus: Non-verbal memory
-visuo-spatial associations (driving directions)
-face recall


which degenerative disorders could cause memory impairment?

-alzheimers (primary dementia)
-chronic alcoholism (secondary dementia, related to thiamine deficiency)


which cerebrovascular disorders could cause memory impairment?

-bilateral thalamic infarction (produces the densest amnesias)
-cardiogenic cerebral anoxia


which paroxysmal/episodic disorders could cause memory impairment?

transient global amnesia (TGA)
temporal lobe epilepsy/transient epileptic amnesia
post-traumatic amnesia


leading neuropathological cause of temporal lobe focal epilepsy?

hippocampal sclerosis.
characterized by cell loss in hippocampus (CA1 area particularly) and gliosis

presents with declarative memory disturbance


what is the prognosis with someone suffering from temporal lobe focal seizures related to hippocampal sclerosis?

quite good, since it is typically localized to a specific area of hippocampus-->can be surgically resected.

however, if patient does not also present with declarative memory problem, then surgery should be cautioned as it would cause a great loss of function in a patient with preserved memory.


what are the potential causes and symptoms of transient global amnesia (TGA)

-precipitated by sexual intercourse, cold water, stress
-striking anterograde amnesia
-no disruption to self identity
-underlying cause remains unknown (possibly vascular, migraine, epileptic event, drug effect, etc)


what are characteristics of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)

post-epileptic event with period of amnesia surrounding the event


characteristics of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA)

occuring after major head trauma, in particular events of great acceleration/deceleration changes.
(ex concussion)


which disease is the most common cause of dementia?
Major risk factor for it?

Alzheimers (50%)

Age is the major risk factor!


role of the entorhinal cortex in the hippocampus system?

acts as the interface between hippocampus and neocortex, integral to understand memory and deficits that occur


Which type of memory is hippocampus most associated with, declarative or implicit?

Hippocampus along with entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex.


patients presenting with memory problems related to name-face association and/or object/place association would be indicative of what type of impairment?

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), potential early indicator of alzheimers


language impairment in Alzheimer's disease is localized to which brain region?

temporo-parietal area, closer to Wernicke's region. Producing fluent, empty language. Dynsomia and circumlocation.