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Flashcards in L13 Deck (32):
1

Dihydrotestosterone
^
I
I ENZYME (nazwa)
I
Testosterone

5-alpha reductase

This enzyme is required for the normal male development of the external Genitalia in utero.

2

In absence of these hormones, female characteristics

Testosterone and a glycoprotein hormone called Mullerin inhibiting Hormone (MIH) required for male development.

3

Before .... weeks of gestation, the sex of the embryo is indeterminate

7-8

4

All embryos acquire dual ductal systems – ....

the Mullerian Duct and the Wolffian duct

5

Mullerian duct gives rise to ....

Wolffian duct give rise to ....

fallopian tubes and uterus

Vas deferens and Seminal vesicles.

6

In the female the Mullerian ducts ... and the Wolffian ducts .... (default route).

develop
degenerate

7

In the male, .... inhibiting hormone causes the Mullerian duct to ..... and the testosterone .... the Wolffian ducts and also causes virilization of the external genitalia.

Mullerin
degenerate
differentiates

8

Testes –

source of germ cells and hormones
important for reproductive function;

Composed of seminiferous tubules where spermatozoa manufactured i.e. the sperm factory.

Secretion of Androgens: which bring about full masculine development.

9

Epididymis –

sperm spend at least 12 days in transit. Reservoir of sperm. But also sperm maturation.

10

Semen-

(2-6ml)
Sperm count 108 sperms/ml
(i.e 100 million/ml)

poszczególne elementy poniżej się na to składają:
•ampullary gland
•seminal vesicles (60%)
•Prostate (20%)
•bulbo-urethral glands

Secretions provide nutrients (fructose) for the sperm and secretions of the prostate is alkaline

Motility and fertility of sperm optimal at pH 6.5

11

Estrogens synthesised by the developing follicle
reaches a peak ... before ovulation

2 days

12

The estrogen peak is responsible for the surge of
... release

both LH/FSH

13

... after.... peak ovulation takes place

12 hr
LH/FSH

14

Estrogens secreted by ....

follicle

15

Two major effects of estrogens:

• [1] It suppresses FSH release at low concentrations
• [2] At high concentrations it stimulates a surge of
both LH and FSH release

16

LUTEAL PHASE - opisz

After ovulation, the corpus luteum, under the influence of LH secretes both estrogens and progesterone:

Therefore:
•secretory endometrium develops
•Inhibition of secretion of FSH/LH.

Decrease in LH leads to degeneration of the corpus luteum, and a corresponding decrease in estrogens and progesterone.
Therefore endometrium begins to slough at conclusion of Day 28

17

Corpus luteum synthesizes and secretes ..... under the influence of ....

both estrogen and progesterone
LH/FSH

18

After Ovulation Progesterone supports the and .... also depresses ....

secretory phase of the endometrium
LH secretion

19

After Ovulation Estrogen alters ..... so that the release of ....

pituitary sensitivity to GnRH
LH/FSH diminishes

20

After Ovulation The corpus luteum no longer produces .... as the levels of .... drop and regresses to form ....

estrogens/progesterone
LH/FSH
corpus albicans

21

After Ovulation Decrease in ... leads to the ..... and the cycle restarts again

oestrogens/progesterone
shedding of the endometrium

22

During Pregnancy, the .... is maintained

Corpus Luteum

23

For pregnancy to occur, Sperm must be present between ... before and ....after ovulation.

Sperm remain capable of fertilizing an oocyte for ... whilst an ovulated oocyte remains viable for ....

4 days before
1 day after

4-6 days
24-48hrs.

24

If Pregnancy occurs, the fertilised egg secretes .... (rozwiń skrót) and ... (rozwiń skrót)

HCG (human chorionic Gonadotrophin)
HPL (human placental lactogen)

25

the basis of the pregnancy test - hormone name

HCG – human chorionic Gonadotrophin

26

HCG ~ similar to ...

HPL ~ similar to ....

LH/FSH

prolactin (caused growth of mammary glands)

27

Pregnancy: HCG works like ...

Therefore Corpus Luteum is now maintained for 3 months till .... takes over the secretion of ....

LH.

placenta
progesterone
and estrogens

28

Pregnancy: ... can carry on for months

Lactation

29

During lactation, ... is reduced, primarily mediated by ....

fertility
prolactin

30

Prolactin suppresses the ....

release of GnRH

31

Lactation can be suppressed by ....
which depresses prolactin release.

dopamine (bromocriptine)

32

.... antagonists allow prolactin release and hence milk synthesis

Dopamine