Flashcards in L19 Deck (19)
The normal plasma osmolality (Posm) is ~... mosmol.kg-1H2O and very small variation by (~ ... ) is sufficient to activate compensatory mechanisms.
HOW The kidneys regulate the osmolality of the plasma by producing urine of varying osmolality?
1. The establishment of the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla by:
•Transport of NaCl by the ascending loop of Henle
•The counter-current multiplier in the thin descending, hairpin bend & ascending loop of Henle
2.The regulation of the absorption of water from the collecting ducts by ADH.
Ascending loop of Henle: describe transport of ions: (3)
●Transport is via....
●About .....% of the filtered ......- is reabsorbed
●The Na+/K+/2Cl-co-transporter is .....by loop diuretics -....
●Transport is via an apical Na+/K+/2Cl-co-transporter and a baso-lateral Na-pump
●About 20% of the filtered Na+, K+ and Cl- is reabsorbed
●The Na+/K+/2Cl-co-transporter is blocked by loop diuretics - frusemide, bumetamide.
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle ........ flows into the interstitium,.....
solute but not water
increasing its osmolality
Przypomnienie: Producing Urine of Varying Osmolality
• The descending limb of the loop is permeable to water and so tubular fluid is concentrated
•Fluid continues to enter the loop so the concentrated fluid formed in the decending limb enters the ascending limb.
•A gradient is starting to develop in the interstitium and the nephron
•Solute fluxes continue to increase interstitial osmolality.
•Water fluxes from the descending limb concentrate tubular fluid.
•Repetition of the process generates an osmotic gradient in the medullary interstitium.
The collecting ducts are..... to Na ....to water except in the presence of ....
ADH - rozwin skót
Antidiuretic Hormone / vasopressin,
ADH, or ..... is produced by....
the posterior pituitary gland.
•It is also called .... to distinguish it from ADH produced by ....
ADH: Actions on the kidney: (3)
+ the net effect
•↑water permeability of the collecting duct
•↑urea permeability in the inner medullary region of the collecting duct
•↑NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb.
The net effect is to aid water reabsorption by the kidney!
ADH is produced in cells in....
the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
ADH is transported to and released from ....
the posterior pituitary
• ADH is released by .... as small as
1%. Release is reduced when ....
a rise of plasma osmolality
Plasma [ADH] between ..... accounts for the
range of urine osmolalities i.e. ....
0.5 and 5 pg.ml-1
100 -1250 mosmol.kg H2O-1.
describe Mode of Action of ADH
Increased water permeability
This increases the insertion of water channels, aquaporins(AQP2), into the apical surface of the cell
Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) to generate cAMP and activate protein kinase A (PKA)
In the collecting duct ADH binds to a receptor on the baso-lateral surface of the tubule cell
LO: The establishment of the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla by the counter-current multiplier
LO: Transport of NaCl by the ascending loop of Henle
LO: The role of ADH in the regulation of plasma osmolality