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Flashcards in L14 Deck (30):
1

.... gives adrenal extracts to ... to test on Dog. Blood Pressure. Year 1893 London, UCL
Discovery of ...

George Oliver (from Harrogate)

Edward Schaefer (Professor of Physiology at
UCL)

Adrenaline

2

Who has coined the term Hormone?

Starling and Bayliss

3

.... discover.... (in dog) London 1905

Starling and Bayliss (Physiology, UCL)

secretin

4

Gives 13 year old dying boy .....;
Boy recovers – discovery of ....
Toronto 1922

pancreatic extract
INSULIN

5

ADRENAL GLAND controls with cortisol (4):

Blood glucose regulation

protein turnover

survival in the time of stress (with adrenaline as well)

Modulation of tissue response in injury and infection

6

ADRENAL GLAND controls with aldosterone (1):

Na and K balance

7

Function of cortisol (2):

[1] to raise blood glucose by regulating metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats (protein to glycogen)

[2] Adaption to stress-immunosuppresive, antiallergic,
anti-inflammatory

8

Too much cortisol (4):

(Cushing’s syndrome)
Redistribution of body fat
Wasting of muscle
Hyperglycemia

9

Too much cortisol due to (5):

1) increased output of ACTH
2) hypersecretion of CRH
3) lung tumours often produce ACTH
4) patients with chronic inflammatory disorders
5) receiving treatment with corticosteroids

10

Medulla is composed of .... –

Chromaffin Cells

11

Chromaffin Cells -

sympathetic postganglionic neurons in medulla.

12

The Chromaffin cells are filled with granules containing ...
Granules secrete by exocytosis

The cells are filled with granules containing adrenaline, ATP, opioid peptides.

13

NORADRENALINE - inna nazwa...
ADRENALINE - inna nazwa...

Norepinephrine
epinephrine

14

Adrenergic receptors are GPCR

j

15

Adrenergic receptors in noradrenaline:
+ subtypes:

a-adrenergic
a1 a2, b1

a- alpha, b- beta

16

Adrenergic receptors in adrenaline:
+ subtypes:

b-adrenergic
b1 b2 b3
b- beta

17

Actions of catecholamines dla reakcji:
b --- > cAMP

1) Metabolic
2) Cardiovascular
3) Visceral

1) Glycogenolysis
Lipolysis

2) Heart rate up
Cardiac contractility

3) Muscle relaxation in GI tract
Urinary
Bronchial

18

Actions of catecholamines dla reakcji:
a --- > PLC

1) Metabolic
2) Cardiovascular
3) Visceral

1) Gluconeogenesis (liver)

2) BP increased

3) Sweating
Dilation of pupils

19

CORTISOL - na metabolizm jak wpływa

protein and fat breakdown to have building blocks to make glucose

20

GROWTH HORMONE - na metabolizm jak wpływa

changes energy usage from carbohydrates to fats

21

GLUCAGON and ADRENALINE - na metabolizm jak wpływa

actions on liver to mobilise glucose by breakdown of glycogen and stimulate the synthesis of glucose

22

During starvation, hormones levels of Glucagon, cortisol, GH ....

rise

(All these hormones opposes the effects of Insulin)

23

Glycogenolysis -

breakdown of glycogen

24

Gluconeogenesis -

synthesis of glucose from fatty acids etc

25

Lipolysis -

breakdown of fats (produces fatty acids)

26

Only a single hormone can decrease plasma Glucose
levels – this is ....

Insulin

27

60% β cells -stores ...

25% α cells - stores ...

15% Δ cells - stores ...

insulin

glucagon

somatostatin

28

Islets - ...% of pancreatic mass

2%

29

Actions of Insulin:

1. Uptake of glucose, amino acids by muscle and adipose tissue
2. Storage of fuels- stimulates synthesis of triglycerides,
proteins and glycogen

30

Consequently:

1) Insulin lowers ....

2) Resting levels of glucose is ...
3) After a meal the concentration will rise to

High Glucose stimulates ....

1) blood glucose levels

2) 5.6mM (1mg/ml)

3) 7-8mM

INSULIN RELEASE