L2 - Time for Change (Time,Change) Flashcards Preview

Vocabulary For IELTS Advanced - Cambridge > L2 - Time for Change (Time,Change) > Flashcards

Flashcards in L2 - Time for Change (Time,Change) Deck (38)
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1

retrospect

/ˈret.rəʊ.spekt/
in retrospect
thinking back to a time in the past, especially with the advantage of knowing more now than you did then
-- In retrospect, I wonder if we should have done more.
When you consider something in retrospect, you think about it afterwards, and often have a different opinion about it from the one that you had at the time.
In retrospect, I wish that I had thought about alternative courses of action...
In retrospect, and with the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that this was a bad decision.

{/ˈhaɪnd.saɪt/ Hindsight is the ability to understand and realize something about an event after it has happened, although you did not understand or realize it at the time.}

2

contemporary

existing or happening now:
contemporary music/literature/art/fashion
Although it was written hundreds of years ago, it still has a contemporary (= modern) feel to it.

3

bygone

/ˈbaɪ.gɒn/
appening or existing a long time ago:
a bygone age / era
The book recalls other memories of a bygone age.
...bygone generations.
گذشته، کهنه، قدیمی

4

immediate

an immediate reaction / response * to take immediate action * RAM stores information for immediate access.
2 [usually before noun] existing now and needing urgent attention:
Our immediate concern is to help the families of those who died. * The effects of global warming, while not immediate, are potentially catastrophic. * The hospital says she's out of immediate danger. * The report focuses on some of the more immediate problems facing us.

5

preceding

formal happening or coming before the time, place, or part mentioned
income tax paid in preceding years

6

current

of the present time:
Have you seen the current issue of (= the most recently published) Vogue magazine?

7

topical

connected with sth that is happening or of interest at the present time:
a topical joke / reference * topical crimes / events
topicality noun [U, sing.]:

8

status quo

status quo
noun
[sing.] (from Latin) the situation as it is now, or as it was before a recent change:
to defend / restore the status quo * conservatives who want to maintain the status quo.
There will always be people who resist change and want to maintain the status quo.
وضع موجود،وضع کنونى

9

enormous

extremely large
SYN HUGE, IMMENSE:
an enormous house / dog * an enormous amount of time / money / information * enormous interest / pressure / responsibility * The problems facing the President are enormous.

extremely or very much:
She worked enormously hard on the project.
The show was enormously popular.

10

modest

not very large, expensive, important, etc:
modest improvements / reforms * He charged a relatively modest fee. * a modest little house * The research was carried out on a modest scale.

11

immense

extremely large or great
SYN ENORMOUS:
There is still an immense amount of work to be done. * The benefits are immense. * a project of immense importance * To my immense relief, he didn't notice my mistake.

12

gradual

a gradual increase
happening slowly over a long period; not sudden:
a gradual change in the climate * Recovery from the disease is very gradual.
A gradual change or process occurs in small stages over a long period of time, rather than suddenly.
Losing weight is a slow, gradual process...
You can expect her progress at school to be gradual rather than brilliant.

13

profound

very great; felt or experienced very strongly:
profound changes in the earth's climate * My father's death had a profound effect on us all. * The news came as a profound shock. * The report has profound implications for schools. * Her sense of disappointment was profound.

14

extraordinary

unexpected, surprising or strange:
It's extraordinary that he managed to sleep through the party. * What an extraordinary thing to say! * The president took the extraordinary step of apologizing publicly for his behaviour!

15

sweeping

to move, especially quickly and powerfully:
Everyone looked up as she swept into the room.
The fire swept (= spread quickly) through the house.
The National Party swept into power (= easily won the election) with a majority of almost 200.

16

minor

not very large, important or serious:
a minor road * minor injuries * to undergo minor surgery * youths imprisoned for minor offences * There may be some minor changes to the schedule. * Women played a relatively minor role in the organization.

17

tremendous

very great:
a tremendous explosion * A tremendous amount of work has gone into the project.

18

infinitesimal

extremely small:
/ˌɪn.fɪ.nɪˈtes.ɪ.məl/
adjective FORMAL
infinitesimal traces of poison * an infinitesimal risk
infinitesimally adverb
The amounts of radioactivity present were infinitesimal.

19

moderate

that is neither very good, large, hot, etc. nor very bad, small, cold, etc:
students of moderate ability * Even moderate amounts of the drug can be fatal. * The team enjoyed only moderate success last season. * Cook over a moderate heat.

20

drastic

/ˈdræs.tɪk/
extreme in a way that has a sudden, serious or violent effect on sth:
Many employees have had to take drastic cuts in pay.

21

major

very large or important:
a major road \* major international companies \* to play a major role in sth \* We have encountered major problems. \* There were calls for major changes to the welfare system.
OPP MINOR

22

smooth

completely flat and even, without any lumps, holes or rough areas:
a lotion to make your skin feel soft and smooth * The water was as smooth as glass. * a paint that gives a smooth, silky finish * Over the years, the stone steps had worn smooth.
OPP ROUGH.
A smooth liquid or mixture has been mixed well so that it has no lumps.
Continue whisking until the mixture looks smooth and creamy...

23

turbulent

/ˈtɜː.bjʊ.lənts/
A turbulent time, place, or relationship is one in which there is a lot of change, confusion, and disorder.
They had been together for five or six turbulent years of rows and reconciliations...

24

abrupt

/əˈbrʌpt/
adjective
describes something that is sudden and unexpected, and often unpleasant:
an abrupt change/movement
Our conversation came to an abrupt end when George burst into the room.
The road ended in an abrupt (= sudden and very steep) slope down to the sea.

25

sudden

happening or done quickly and unexpectedly:
a sudden change / decision * Don't make any sudden movements. * His death was very sudden.
suddenness noun [U]
IDIOMS
all of a sudden quickly and unexpectedly:
All of a sudden someone grabbed me around the neck.

26

temporary

a temporary levelling out
lasting or intended to last only for a short time; not permanent:
temporary relief from pain * temporary work /

27

They're under attack not only from erosion but also from looters.

erosion : the process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the seaفرسايش
looter : A looter is a person who steals things from shops or houses, for example during a war or riot.

28

In some area we've found remnants of ancient villages buried beneath deep layers of sediment.

sediment: the solid material that settles at the bottom of a liquid ته نشست، لای، رسوب

29

Other area have yielded only small flecks of charcoal from prehistoric fires.

Flecks are small marks on a surface, or objects that look like small marks.
His hair is dark grey with flecks of ginger.
a hard black substance similar to coal which can be used as fuel or, in the form of sticks, as something to draw with:
charcoal for the barbecue
I prefer sketching in charcoal to pencil.
a charcoal drawing

30

Large Changes

Enormous
Total change
Dramatic ...
Profound ...
Extraordinary ...
Sweeping ...
Tremendous ...
Drastic ...
Major ....
Huge ....