Flashcards in L2_ Intro to Immunology Deck (31):
Briefly describe characteristics of the Innate Immune System (speed, variability, selectivity, dynamic)
Rapid Response (Hours), Fixed, Limited number of Specificities, Constant during response
Briefly describe characteristics of the adapted immune system speed, variability, selectivity, dynamic)
Slow Response (days to weeks), variable, numerous highly selective specificities, improve during response
What is one overriding similarity between Innate and Adaptive Immune responses?
They both have common effector mechanisms for the destruction of pathogens
What is more important innate or adaptive immunity?
Innate! (without innate, we cannot even activate our adaptive)
What is the largest organ involved in immunity?
What are the 3 major mechanisms of the innate immune system?
Barriers, Phagocytes, Complement
What is an Opsonin? List two types of particles that can be opsonins?
Something that increases the phagocytosis of an object by binding to the object. Complements and Antibodies
List the 3 major mechanisms of Adaptive immunity
Antibody, T-cell Recognition, Cell Mediated Activation of the Innate Immune System.
What is an antigen recognized by?
An Antibody or a T-Cell receptor
Name the corresponding Tissue Macrophage for:
Liver, Skin, Connective Tissue, Brain, Bone, Joints, Lungs
Liver- Kupffer Cell, Skin-Histiocyte, Connective Tissue- Histiocyte, Brain-Microglial Cell, Bone-Osteoclasts, Joints-Synovial type A Cells, Lungs- Alveolar Macrophages
What type of immunity is complement involved in?
Both Innate and Adaptive
What is the most common opsonin of the complement system that can be recognized by many effector cell types?
Name the cell type, receptor, or ligand linked to the following CD groups: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD28, CD40, CD40L, CD25
CD8- Cytotoxic T-Cell
CD28- recognition of APC (B7)
CD40 - Co-stimulatory molecule
CD40L - Ligand for CD40
CD25 - IL-2 receptor (high affinity)
What type of cell is a Neutrophil/polymorphonuclear leukocyte, What is their function, describe their life cycle.
They are a granulocyte and an end cell type. They phagocytize and kill microorganism. They have granules that contain the bactericidal and hydrolytic enzymes of the cell. They are short-lived once released from the bone marrow. They enter site of infection and die there and are taken up by macrophages.
What is the most abundant leukocyte?
What is the main function of eosinophils, what is their abundance, how long do they remain in circulation, tissue?
They are granulocytes, they do not contain lysozyme but do contain eosinophilic basic protein(EBP) which is thought to be important in clearance of parasitic worms. 1-3% of leukocytes, removed from blood very quickly (T50 ~ 30min)
What is the macrophage and dendritic cell precursor cell?
Cytotoxic T-cells are known for mainly killing cells infected by what?
Virally infected cells
Describe Natural killer Cells. What is their make up, and what are they known for doing?
They are large granular lymphocytes that are known to kill tumor cells and some virally infected cells without apparent specificity.
Name the normal percentages for WBC differential: Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes
Neutrophils 40-75%, Eosinophils 1-6%, Basophils <1%, Monocytes 2-10%, Lymphocytes 20-50%
What are the three main (broad) functions of a T-Cell?
Help B-Cells, Stimulate phagocytes to kill better, and be directly cytotoxic to virally infected cells and tumor cells.
What part of an antibody do effector cells bind?
The Fc region
What two main targets can complement recognize?
Foreign microorganisms and also bound antibody molecules.
Name the two major ways in which cells types are identified.
Morphological criteria- stains are used to view cells under a microscope
Antigenic- main monoclonal antibodies have been developed to recognize specific types of cells
What types of cells do macrophages kill intracellularly and what types extracellularly?
Intracellular- bacteria, yeast, parasites
Extracellular- virally infected cells, larger parasites, tumor cells
What is the function of dendritic cells?
Activation of T-cells and initiation of adaptive immune responses
What are the functions of macrophages?
Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. Activation of T-Cells and initiation of immune responses
What is the function of mast cells?
Expulsion of parasites from the body through release of granules containing histamine and other active agents
What are the major targets of Cytotoxic T-Cells?
Virally infected cells.
What are the primary immune organs?
organs where immature lymphocytes develop
Thymus and Bone Marrow