Flashcards in L53 -- Bad health habits Deck (47):
2 main factors that predicting the likelihood of a preventive / health behaviour will occur?
What are 2 cues to action (stimuli that trigger appropriate health behavior)?
Internal stimuli: perception of bodily states (e.g. aching)
External stimuli: Stimuli from environment, usually Fear in response to education / information (e.g. cigarette packages)
What is vulnerability?
perceived threat to an illness
What is perceived susceptibility?
individual’s belief about whether he / she is likely to contract an illness
What is perceived severity?
degree to which an individual perceives the consequences of having an illness to be severe (e.g. fatality, disability)
How does Hopelessness, helplessness (esp lower socioeconomic class) impact the way an individual regard their health?
Lower Perceived control >> regard their health as Not controllable by themselves
What kind of individual is easy to motivate to have good health habits? (think perceived control)
Individuals that regard their health as controlled by them
What is self-efficacy?
individual’s estimate of his / her ability to successfully modify / carry out the desired
How does optimistic bias occur, leading to unrealistic optimism?
Individuals engage in forms of social comparison that reflect best on themselves
Define Health motivation?
individual's readiness to be concerned about health matters
What behavior is guided by incentives?
behaviour that is highly governed by its consequences
What belief is response effectiveness?
belief that adopting a new behaviour will reduce the threat
What two factors balance each other and influence response effectiveness?
Perceived benefits and perceived cost of changing one's behavior
>> change the belief that health behavior can reduce threat
What are some factors assciated as optimistic bias? (think of the ways a chronic smoker in denial of getting lung cancer)
- Lack of personal experience with problem
- Belief that own actions can prevent the problem
- Belief that the problem is unlikely to emerge given it hasnt
- Belief that problem is rare
How can subjective norms influence an individual's motivation to seek health behavior?
1. Perception of social norms
2. Pressures to perform a behavior
3. Whether the individual is motivated to comply with this pressure
Subjective norm is a powerful way to implement health behavior in what cultures?
Ones where pressure to conform to norm is high
Where group behavior is more prevalent
List some situational barriers that could stop a person from seeking health behavior?
Are older or younger people more likely to adopt to health behavior?
Older: more likely to adopt
Younger: think no immediate threat
How does socioeconomic status and gender influence one's likelihood to adopt to health behavior?
Socioeconomic status: high = care less of cost to daily lifestyles
Gender: male = less likely to conform
What are the 2 theories under the cognition models for health behavior?
-Health belief model
-Protection Motivation theory
What 2 theories come under the social cognition models?
-Theory of reasoned action
-Theory of planned behavior
What is the limitation of the cognition models?
Focus only on individual
Neglect interaction between individual and environment
What is the limitation of the SOCIAL cognition models?
- Fail to take into account for habitual behaviours
- Intention may not predict actual behavior
What is another name for the Stages-of -change model?
transtheorectical model (TTM)
What framework does TTM provide?
Proposes a predictable, sequential pathway / framework for behavioral change over time
What are the 5 stages of change?
What is the mental state in precontemplation?
No / little consideration of change
Tasks of pre-contemplation?
- Increase awareness for need for change
- Increase concern about current pattern
Goal for pre-contemplation?
Serious consideration of change of behavior
What is the mental state in Contemplation
Examine current pattern of behavior >> considering a
potential for change
Tasks of Contemplation
analyze pros, cons (consequences) of
Goal for Contemplation
of change for this
What is the mental state in Preparation
Make small changes
to behavioural pattern
Develop a plan,
strategy for change
Tasks of Preparation
Increasing commitment and creating a plan (has to be concrete and set in time)
Goal for Preparation
Implement action plan
in the near term
What is the mental state in Action
Implement change plan:
Take steps to change
Begin to create /
actively engage in a
new behavioral pattern
Tasks of Action
Implement strategies for
Sustain commitment in
face of difficulties
Goal for Action
to change current
pattern for a
of time (e.g. 3-6
What is the mental state in Maintenance
Sustain the new behavioural pattern for an extended period of time
>> consolidate into lifestyle
Tasks of Maintenance
Sustain change over
time and across a wide
range of different
Avoiding slips and
Goal for Maintenance
Sustain change of
the old pattern in the long-term
Establish a new
pattern of behaviour
What happens if, in maintenance phase, the slips or relapse occurs?
Recycle back to
What factors influence pre-contemplation?
What factors influence contemplation?
What factors influence Preparation?
What factors influence Action?