Flashcards in L01 Functional Anatomy of Airway Deck (70):
General functions of respiratory system.
What is: External Respiration?
External= alveoli- capillary, air-blood gas exchange
Internal= capillary- interstitial fluid and cells gas exchange
Three functions of respiratory system?
Name, description, location.
Gas exchange, external resp. From respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
Air supply, movement of air in and out of sites of exchange, precondition of air, from nasal cavity to bronchioles
Pulmonary ventilation, respiratory movements, thoracic wall, diaphragm, pleura
Name of epithelium that preconditions air in airway?
Psuedostrtified columnar epithelium
How is air pre-conditioned?
Moisten, cleaned, warmed
Other functions of resp.system? (3)
Drainage of excess tears and paranasal sinus fluid
Conducting portion of resp.? Name all the structures starting from naris to temrinal bronchiole.
Naris, vestibule, concha and meatus, choana, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngeal pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, larger bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
Respiratory portion structures. List from start to end.
Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, atria, alveolar sac, alveoli
Definition of choanae?
Posterior aperture of nasal cavity that open into nasopharynx
Nasal septum. Posterior structure?
Posterior: Vomer, separates the two nasal cavities , perpendicular to ethmoid
Definition of conchae?
Bony ridges on lateral walls of meatus, opening to paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal duct
Epithelium of Vestibule?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Epithelium of Respiratory and Olfactory portions of nasal cavity?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Pharynx epithelium: Oral? Nasal?
Oral= non-keratinized Stratified Squamous
Nasal= Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Larynx epithelium? (2)
non-keratinized Stratified squamous , pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Trachea and primary bronchi epithelium?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Secondary bronchi epithelium?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
bronchioles to terminal bronchiole epithelium?
simple columnar to simple cuboidal
respiratory bronchiole to alveolar duct to alveolar epithelium
simple cuboidal to simple squamous
Clara cell main functions?
-Protect epithelium by:
conjugate with IgA
Produce GAG, lysozyme, Clara cell secretory protein
-Stem cell, regenerate bronchiolar epithelium
Clara cell features: 3
Nonciliated, non-mucous, short microvilli
Components of Blood- air barrier in alveoli?
simple squamous epithelium of alveolar
fused basement membrane
Type I pneumocyte with tight junctions
3 cells present in alveolar?
Type I and II pneumocyte, dust cells
Alveolar dust cell origin?
modified macrophage, migrate across wall of pulmonary capillaries to interalveolar septa.
alveolar dust cell function?
ingest dust in alveolar spaces, move up bronchial tree by cilia, swallowed or expectorated with mucus
Smoker's lung black due to?
dead dust cells rich in carbon deposits
Pneumocyte type I function?
primary cell for gas exchange, thin and flattened
Pulmonary interstitum function?
rich in elastic fibre, help recoil
Type II pneumocyte type?
Granular cuboidal epithelium
Type II pneumocyte function?
multi-laminar body containing surfactant
stem cell to produce type I cell after injury
decrease alveolar surface tension
hyaline cartilage present up to which structures in conduction portion?
up to segmental/secondary bronchi before terminal bronchiole
ciliated cells present up to which structure?
up to respiratory bronchioles in respiratory portion, before alveolar duct
elastic fibre present in which structures?
all of airway
Smooth muscle present up to which structure?
Glands present up to which structure?
Up to secondary bronchi
Alveolar pores functions?
equilibrate air pressure, may spread infections
What divides upper and lower respiratory tract?
Laryngeal inlet between laryngopharynx and larynx
Structures in Upper Resp. Tract?
Nasal cavities, paranasl air sinuses, pharynx
Structures in pharynx?
Naso, Oro, Laryngopharynx
Structures in Lower Resp. Tract?
Larynx, Trachea, Bronchiole tree
full name of respiratory epithelium? Which portion of resp. system?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Only in Conducting portion
Resp. epithelium clean, moist, warm air. How?
Clean= mucus traps debris, cilia sweep mucus to pharynx, swallowed and neutralised
Warm= blood exchange heat
Moist= evaporation of water
What increases contact with mucous membranes?
Turbulent airflow generated by bone structure of nasal cavity conchae and meatus
4 paranasal air sinuses?
Frontal sinus, Ethmoid cells, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus
Fibromuscular tube from base of skull to C6
Connects nasal cavity to larynx and oesophagus
common chamber for respiratory and digestive system
cilia move mucus from choanae to nasopharynx to be swallowed
Epithelium for three parts of pharynx?
Naso= respiratory epithelium
Oro= nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Laryngeal= nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Tonsils are located where?
Pharyngeal tonsil/ adenoid (and Tubal tonsils) @ nasopharynx
Palatine and Lingual tonsils @ oropharynx
Larynx structures from cranial to caudal?
Larynx vestibule- ventricle- infraglottic cavity
2 BIGGEST cartilages of Larynx?
Cricoid and Thyroid
What is Adam's Apple?
Tip of Thyroid cartilage
Superior boundary of Larynx Ventricle?
Superior: vestibular folds/ false vocal cords
Inferior: vocal folds/ true vocal cords
Functions of true and false vocal cords?
True: produces sound, forms glottis, extends from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilage
False: prevent food from entering larynx
Epiglottis vs thyroid and cricoid cartilage type?
epiglottis is elastic, thyroid & cricoid is hyaline
Epiglottis upper vs lower posterior surface epithelium?
upper: Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
lower" pseudostratified columnar
Name of space between two folds in larynx?
laryngeal ventricle/ laryngeal sinus
Slit between true vocal cords name?
Name of space between true vocal fold and start of trachea?
Difference in appearance of true and false vocal cords?
True has denser connective tissue and no glands
Vocal folds and sound production, how does it relate to arytenoid cartilage and muscle length?
Arytenoid cartilage and muscles determine length of vocal folds. Abduct fold when not speaking, Adduct when speaking and glottis is narrowed
Trachea structure? Note cartilage, structures on posterior wall... etc
Epithelium of trachea?
15-20 hyaline cartilage, C-shape
with elastic ligamentous membrane and trachealis muscle (smooth muscles) on posterior wall facing esophagus
Trachea lamina propria describe.
Loose connective tissues and elastic fibres
Trachea submucosa describe.
dense connective tissue, seromucous glands
Advantitia of trachea describe.
connective tissue secures trachea to other tissue
Trachealis muscles in coughing describe.
Contract to expel mucus and foreign objects
Level of bifurcation/ carina of trachea?
T4-T5 intervertebral disc/ sternal angle
Sequence of bronchial tree? Start at Main bronchi...
Main bronchi- secondary/ lobar bronchus- Tertiary/ segmental bronchus- 16/20 generations of branching- terminal bronchioles
Smooth muscle in bronchiole are controlled by nervous system to change lumen diameter. How?
parasympathetic constrict, sympathetic dilate
What are intrapulmonary and extrapulmonary bronchi surrounded by?
What is the submucosa made of?
What is the name of cartilage and what diameter of airway is cartilage found up to?
extrapulmonary bronchus surround by adventitia
intrapulmonary bronchus surround by lung tissue
submucosa= 2 layers of smooth muscle in opp. direction, seromucous glands
Irregular hyaline cartilages, disappear when diameter of airway is less than 1mm