L01 Functional Anatomy of Airway Flashcards Preview

MBBS I CPRS > L01 Functional Anatomy of Airway > Flashcards

Flashcards in L01 Functional Anatomy of Airway Deck (70):
1

General functions of respiratory system.
What is: External Respiration?
Internal Respiration?

External= alveoli- capillary, air-blood gas exchange
Internal= capillary- interstitial fluid and cells gas exchange

2

Three functions of respiratory system?
Name, description, location.

Gas exchange, external resp. From respiratory bronchioles to alveoli

Air supply, movement of air in and out of sites of exchange, precondition of air, from nasal cavity to bronchioles

Pulmonary ventilation, respiratory movements, thoracic wall, diaphragm, pleura

3

Name of epithelium that preconditions air in airway?

Psuedostrtified columnar epithelium

4

How is air pre-conditioned?

Moisten, cleaned, warmed

5

Other functions of resp.system? (3)

Olfactory

Phonation- speaking

Drainage of excess tears and paranasal sinus fluid

6

Conducting portion of resp.? Name all the structures starting from naris to temrinal bronchiole.

Naris, vestibule, concha and meatus, choana, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngeal pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, larger bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

7

Respiratory portion structures. List from start to end.

Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, atria, alveolar sac, alveoli

8

Definition of choanae?

Posterior aperture of nasal cavity that open into nasopharynx

9

Nasal septum. Posterior structure?
Anterior structure?

Posterior: Vomer, separates the two nasal cavities , perpendicular to ethmoid
Anterior: Cartilage

10

Definition of conchae?

Bony ridges on lateral walls of meatus, opening to paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal duct

11

Epithelium of Vestibule?

Stratified squamous epithelium

12

Epithelium of Respiratory and Olfactory portions of nasal cavity?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

13

Pharynx epithelium: Oral? Nasal?

Oral= non-keratinized Stratified Squamous
Nasal= Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

14

Larynx epithelium? (2)

non-keratinized Stratified squamous , pseudostratified ciliated columnar

15

Trachea and primary bronchi epithelium?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

16

Secondary bronchi epithelium?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

17

bronchioles to terminal bronchiole epithelium?

simple columnar to simple cuboidal

18

respiratory bronchiole to alveolar duct to alveolar epithelium

simple cuboidal to simple squamous

19

Clara cell main functions?

-Protect epithelium by:
conjugate with IgA
Detoxify
Produce GAG, lysozyme, Clara cell secretory protein

-Stem cell, regenerate bronchiolar epithelium

20

Clara cell features: 3

Nonciliated, non-mucous, short microvilli

21

Components of Blood- air barrier in alveoli?

Surfactant
simple squamous epithelium of alveolar
fused basement membrane
Type I pneumocyte with tight junctions
capillary endothelium

22

3 cells present in alveolar?

Type I and II pneumocyte, dust cells

23

Alveolar dust cell origin?

modified macrophage, migrate across wall of pulmonary capillaries to interalveolar septa.

24

alveolar dust cell function?

ingest dust in alveolar spaces, move up bronchial tree by cilia, swallowed or expectorated with mucus

25

Smoker's lung black due to?

dead dust cells rich in carbon deposits

26

Pneumocyte type I function?

primary cell for gas exchange, thin and flattened

27

Pulmonary interstitum function?

rich in elastic fibre, help recoil

28

Type II pneumocyte type?

Granular cuboidal epithelium

29

Type II pneumocyte function?

multi-laminar body containing surfactant
stem cell to produce type I cell after injury

30

Surfactant fuction?

decrease alveolar surface tension

31

hyaline cartilage present up to which structures in conduction portion?

up to segmental/secondary bronchi before terminal bronchiole

32

ciliated cells present up to which structure?

up to respiratory bronchioles in respiratory portion, before alveolar duct

33

elastic fibre present in which structures?

all of airway

34

Smooth muscle present up to which structure?

respiratory bronchiole

35

Glands present up to which structure?

Up to secondary bronchi

36

Alveolar pores functions?

equilibrate air pressure, may spread infections

37

What divides upper and lower respiratory tract?

Laryngeal inlet between laryngopharynx and larynx

38

Structures in Upper Resp. Tract?

Nasal cavities, paranasl air sinuses, pharynx

39

Structures in pharynx?

Naso, Oro, Laryngopharynx

40

Structures in Lower Resp. Tract?

Larynx, Trachea, Bronchiole tree

41

full name of respiratory epithelium? Which portion of resp. system?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Only in Conducting portion

42

Resp. epithelium clean, moist, warm air. How?

Clean= mucus traps debris, cilia sweep mucus to pharynx, swallowed and neutralised
Warm= blood exchange heat
Moist= evaporation of water

43

What increases contact with mucous membranes?

Turbulent airflow generated by bone structure of nasal cavity conchae and meatus

44

4 paranasal air sinuses?

Frontal sinus, Ethmoid cells, Sphenoid sinus, Maxillary sinus

45

Pharynx description?

Fibromuscular tube from base of skull to C6

46

Pharynx function?

Connects nasal cavity to larynx and oesophagus
common chamber for respiratory and digestive system

cilia move mucus from choanae to nasopharynx to be swallowed

47

Epithelium for three parts of pharynx?

Naso= respiratory epithelium
Oro= nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Laryngeal= nonkeratinized stratified squamous

48

Tonsils are located where?

Pharyngeal tonsil/ adenoid (and Tubal tonsils) @ nasopharynx

Palatine and Lingual tonsils @ oropharynx

49

Larynx structures from cranial to caudal?

Larynx vestibule- ventricle- infraglottic cavity

50

2 BIGGEST cartilages of Larynx?

Cricoid and Thyroid

51

What is Adam's Apple?

Tip of Thyroid cartilage

52

Superior boundary of Larynx Ventricle?
Inferior boundary?
What structures?

Superior: vestibular folds/ false vocal cords

Inferior: vocal folds/ true vocal cords

53

Functions of true and false vocal cords?

True: produces sound, forms glottis, extends from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilage

False: prevent food from entering larynx

54

Epiglottis vs thyroid and cricoid cartilage type?

epiglottis is elastic, thyroid & cricoid is hyaline

55

Epiglottis upper vs lower posterior surface epithelium?

upper: Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
lower" pseudostratified columnar

56

Name of space between two folds in larynx?

laryngeal ventricle/ laryngeal sinus

57

Slit between true vocal cords name?

Rima Glottidis

58

Name of space between true vocal fold and start of trachea?

infraglottic cavity

59

Difference in appearance of true and false vocal cords?

True has denser connective tissue and no glands

60

Vocal folds and sound production, how does it relate to arytenoid cartilage and muscle length?

Arytenoid cartilage and muscles determine length of vocal folds. Abduct fold when not speaking, Adduct when speaking and glottis is narrowed

61

Trachea structure? Note cartilage, structures on posterior wall... etc

Epithelium of trachea?

15-20 hyaline cartilage, C-shape
with elastic ligamentous membrane and trachealis muscle (smooth muscles) on posterior wall facing esophagus

Resp. epithelium

62

Trachea lamina propria describe.

Loose connective tissues and elastic fibres

63

Trachea submucosa describe.

dense connective tissue, seromucous glands

64

Advantitia of trachea describe.

connective tissue secures trachea to other tissue

65

Trachealis muscles in coughing describe.

Contract to expel mucus and foreign objects

66

Level of bifurcation/ carina of trachea?

T4-T5 intervertebral disc/ sternal angle

67

Sequence of bronchial tree? Start at Main bronchi...

Main bronchi- secondary/ lobar bronchus- Tertiary/ segmental bronchus- 16/20 generations of branching- terminal bronchioles

68

Smooth muscle in bronchiole are controlled by nervous system to change lumen diameter. How?

parasympathetic constrict, sympathetic dilate

69

What are intrapulmonary and extrapulmonary bronchi surrounded by?

What is the submucosa made of?

What is the name of cartilage and what diameter of airway is cartilage found up to?

extrapulmonary bronchus surround by adventitia
intrapulmonary bronchus surround by lung tissue

submucosa= 2 layers of smooth muscle in opp. direction, seromucous glands

Irregular hyaline cartilages, disappear when diameter of airway is less than 1mm

70

Lymphatic drainage of lungs. Start from intrapulmonary nodes to L/R bronchomediastinal trunk

Intrapulmonary lymph nodes- bronchopulmonary lymph nodes- Superior and inferior tracheobronchial lymph nodes- paratracheal lymph nodes-
drain L/R bronchomediastinal trunk

Lower lung- drain to inferior phrenic lymph nodes

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