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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Lab Interpretation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Interpretation Deck (57)
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1

Sodium controls which types of cells?

Brain cells and skeletal muscle cells

2

Abnormal sodium levels cause which symptoms?

Symptoms from brain cell and skeletal muscle dysfunction:

  • decreased level of consciousness (↓ LOC)
  • seizures
  • muscle twitching
  • headaches

3

Potassium controls which types of cells?

Heart and skeletal muscle cells

4

Abnormal potassium levels cause which symptoms?

Symptoms from heart and skeletal muscle dysfunction:

  • heart dysrhythmias
  • muscle weakness and cramps
  • muscle numbness and tingling (paresthesia)

5

Magnesium and Calcium controls which types of cells?

Skeletal and heart muscle cells, and cells for nerve function

6

What is the function of white blood cells (WBCs)?

to fight infection

7

What does an increased and decreased white blood cell (WBC) count indicate?

  • Decreased WBC: the client is immunosuppressed (risk for infection)
  • Increased WBC: the client has an active infection

8
Define:

neutropenia and leukopenia

leukopenia and neutropenia both indicate ↓ WBCs​.

9

What is the function of RBCs?

RBCs: to carry oxygen to all the organs.

Erythrocyte is another name for RBC (red blood cells).

10

What does a decreased red blood cell count (RBC) indicate?

Anemia: the body doesn't have enough oxygen causing fatigue and weakness.

11
Define:

Hemoglobin

 

Hemoglobin is a protein on RBCs that carries oxygen.

RBC = red blood cell

12
Define:

Hematocrit

Hematocrit is the proportion of RBCs in the blood.

RBC = red blood cell

13

What do both hemoglobin and hematocrit indicate?

Both indicate how much blood and oxygen the client has.

Hemoglobin and hematocrit are commonly referred to as "H and H".

14

What does a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit most commonly indicate?

  • ↓ hemoglobin and hematocrit: anemia or bleeding

There is not enough oxygen or RBCs due to bleeding. RBC = red blood cell.

15

What does an increased hemoglobin and hematocrit most commonly indicate?

  • ↑ hemoglobin and hematocrit: dehydration

The volume of fluid in the blood is decreased making the red portion of the blood look more concentrated.

16

What is the function of platelets?

platelets: for the blood to clot properly.

17
Define:

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia indicates low platelets

This can cause an increased risk of bleeding.

18

What is blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and what does an increased level indicate?

BUN is the waste product of protein breakdown in the liver excreted by the kidneys.

An increased BUN may or may not indicate a kidney problem because other conditions can increase the BUN.

 

19

What is creatinine and what does an increased level indicate?

Creatinine is the breakdown product of muscle and other proteins that are excreted by the kidneys.

Any increase in creatinine indicates a kidney problem. 

20

What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

GFR is how much urine gets filtered through the kidneys:

  • It is controlled by blood pressure
  • It is the best way to measure kidney function

21
Define:

Bilirubin

Bilirubin is the breakdown product of old red blood cells and is secreted in bile by the liver.

It causes the yellow color in urine and stool.

22

What does an increased bilirubin indicate?

An increased bilirubin can indicate liver damage or liver disease.

23

What is ALT, AST, ALP and what does an increased level indicate?

 

ALT, AST, and ALP are enzymes released by the liver when there is inflammation.

ALP can also be elevated with bone disorders.

 

24
Define:

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is fat in the body. It is needed to build healthy cells, but an increased level can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

25

What are high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL)?

HDL and LDL are types of cholesterol:

  • HDL is the "Happy" or good cholesterol
  • LDL is the bad cholesterol

26

What is ammonia in regards to the liver?

Ammonia is a waste product of proteins.

The liver helps the body get rid of ammonia by turning it into urea and disposing of it by the kidneys (see BUN).

27

What is albumin and what are its 3 main functions?

Albumin is a protein made by the liver.

Functions of albumin/proteins:

  1. prevents fluids from leaking out of the vascular space
  2. transports substances throughout the body
  3. nourishes tissues

28

What are the most common reasons an albumin/protein level is decreased?

Albumin/protein levels are decreased because of:

  • malnutrition: not eating enough protein
  • liver disease: the liver can't make proteins
  • kidney disease: kidneys are damaged and can't hold onto the proteins and are excreted

29

What are the blood coagulation labs?

The blood coagulation labs are:

  • aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)
  • PTT (partial thromboplastin time)
  • PT (prothrombin time)
  • INR (international normalized ratio)

These labs refer to bleeding time. The higher the number the more likely the client will bleed. Depending on the situation, a higher number (called therapeutic) is desired to prevent blood clots. 

30

What is amylase and lipase?

Amylase and lipase are enzymes released by the pancreas when there is inflammation.

An increased level indicates pancreatitis.

31

What is hemoglobin A1c?

It's also called HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin test.

HbA1c is the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months.

It indicates how well the client has controlled their blood sugar.

32

What is BNP and what does an increased level indicate?

BNP is an enzyme released by the heart when it is stretched due to too much fluid in the heart.

An increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) means worsening heart failure.

33
Immediate Complication

What is troponin and what does an increased level indicate?

Troponin is a protein released by the heart during a myocardial infarction (heart attack).

It is the best indicator of a heart attack.

34

What is CK/CPK and what does an increased level indicate?

CK/CPK (creatine kinase) is an enzyme released by the heart during a myocardial infarction.

It can also be raised with muscle damage from other reasons.

35

What is uric acid and what are elevated levels caused by?

Uric acid is the breakdown of purines found in foods or old cells. 

Elevated levels are caused by:

  • kidney disorder: cannot eliminate uric acid efficiently
  • tumor lysis syndrome: breakdown of old cells from chemotherapy releases uric acid into the blood

36

What can a high uric acid level cause?

Gout

The high uric acid causes inflammation in the joints, especially the big toe.

37

What is a D-dimer lab?

D-dimer indicates the presence of a blood clot

38

What are the thyroid labs?

  • TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
  • T3 (triiodothyronine)
  • T4 (thyroxine)

39

Which direction do the labs go with hypothyroidism?

  • hypothyroidism (low thyroid)
    • ↓T3 and ↓T4
    • ↑TSH

T3 and T4 are decreased so the body compensates by making more TSH. 

 

40

Which direction do the labs go with hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism (high thyroid):

  • ↑T3 and ↑T4
  • ↓TSH

T3 and T4 are elevated so the body compensates by making less TSH. 

 

41

When caring for a client, why is looking at several lab values for the same test better than just looking at one single value?

Looking at several values of the same lab test can indicate if the client is improving or getting worse by recognizing trends

 

42

What is a complete blood count (CBC)?

CBC is a blood lab test where all the hematology labs are included as one test.

  • WBC (white blood cells)
  • RBC (red blood cells)
  • Hgb (hemoglobin)
  • Hct (hematocrit)
  • platelets

43

What is a basic metabolic panel (BMP)?

BMP is a set of labs that includes electrolytes and kidney function:

  • sodium
  • chloride
  • potassium
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • blood glucose
  • BUN
  • creatinine

44

What is a complete metabolic panel (CMP)?

CMP is a set of labs that includes everything in a BMP (electrolytes and kidney labs) in addition to the liver labs

  • bilirubin
  • protein
  • ALT, AST, and ALP

45
Define:

Pancytopenia

Pancytopenia means low blood counts of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

RBC = red blood cell

WBC = white blood cell

46
Immediate Complication

Sepsis/septic

Sepsis/septic is a systemic infection - an infection throughout the entire body.

A high temperature can indicate sepsis.

47
Define:

Penia

Penia indicates low or deficient​.

It is a common ending to many different labs.

 

48

What are the renal labs?

Renal labs:

  • creatinine
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  • GFR (glomerular filtration rate)

49

What are the common liver labs?

Liver labs:

  • ALT, AST, and ALP
  • bilirubin
  • albumin
  • protein
  • ammonia

50

What are the common cardiac labs?

Cardiac Labs:

  • troponins
  • BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide)
  • CK (Creatine kinase)

51

What are the common pancreas labs?

Pancreas labs:

  • amylase
  • lipase
  • hemoglobin A1C
  • blood sugar

52

What are the different types of white blood cells and what types of infections do each target?

Different types of WBCs:

  • neutrophils: bacterial infections
  • lymphocytes: viral infections
  • monocytes: severe infections
  • eosinophils: parasite infections
  • basophils: parasite infections

53

Why is each client vital sign important to measure in nursing?

  • Temp: to check for infection and dehydration
  • RR: to check for respiratory problems
  • HR: to check for irregular heart rhythm, tachycardia or bradycardia
  • BP: to check for fluid volume issues such as fluid volume overload or fluid volume deficit
  • O2: to check for decreased oxygen level

54
Define:

Hypertension and Hypotension

  • Hypotension: Blood pressure < 90/60
  • Hypertension: Blood pressure > 120/80

55
Immediate Complication

Hypoxic/hypoxia

hypoxia/hypoxic: pulse oximetry reading < 95%

56
Define:

Bradycardia and Tachycardia

  • Bradycardia: heart rate < 60
  • Tachycardia: heart rate > 100

57
Define

Febrile and Afebrile

  • Febrile: a temperature above normal
  • Afebrile: temperature is within normal limits