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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Lab Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Values Deck (42)
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1
Lab value:

sodium

135 - 145 (mEq/L)

critical: < 120 or > 160

2
Lab value:

chloride

 98 - 106 (mEq/L)

3
Lab value:

potassium

3.5 - 5 (mmol/L)

critical: < 3 or > 6

4
Lab value:

magnesium

1.6 - 2.6 (mg/dL)

5
Lab value:

calcium

8.5 - 10.5 (mg/dL)

6
Lab value:

phosphorus

2.5 - 4.5 (mg/dL)

7
Lab value:

WBC (white blood cell)

5,000 - 10,000 (mcL)

critical value: < 2,000 or > 40,000

8
Lab value:

RBC: male and female (red blood cell)

RBC:

  • male: 4.7 - 6.6 (mcL)
  • female: 4.2 - 5.4 (mcL)

9
Lab value:

Hgb: male, female, pregnant (hemoglobin)

Hemoglobin:

  • male: 14-18 (g/dL)
  • female: 12-16 (g/dL)
  • pregnant: >11 (g/dL)

10
Lab value:

Hct: male, female, pregnant (hematocrit)

Hematocrit:

  • male: 42 - 52%
  • female: 37 - 47%
  • pregnant: >33%

11
Lab value:

platelets

150,000 - 400,000 (mcL)

critical value: < 50,000 or > 1 million

12
Lab value:

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

10 - 20 (mg/dL)

critical BUN: > 100

13
Lab value:

creatinine

0.6 - 1.2 (mg/dL)

critical: > 4

14
Lab value:

glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

> 90 (mL/min)

average is 125 (mL/min)

15
Lab value:

bilirubin in newborn

  • < 14 (mg/dL), newborn is managed at home with sunlight and increased feedings
  • > 14 (mg/dL), newborn is hospitalized
  • > 20 (mg/dL), is considered toxic

Adult bilirubin is about 1-2, newborn bilirubin is always a bit high around 10.

16
Lab value:

ALT,  AST, ALP

  • alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  • aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  • alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

ALT: 4 - 36 (U/L)

AST: 0 - 25 (U/L)

ALP: 20 - 140 (U/L)

  • a mild elevation will be 2 - 3 times higher than normal
  • a severe elevation can be in the hundreds or thousands

 

17
Lab value:

total cholesterol

< 200 (mg/dL)

18
Lab value:

HDL

High-density lipoproteins

HDL:

  • male: >40 (1.0 mmol/L)
  • female: >50 (1.3 mmol/L)

>60 (1.6 mmol/L) is ideal

19
Lab value:

LDL

Low-density lipoproteins

< 100 (mg/dL)

20
Lab value:

protein

6 - 8.3 (g/dL)

21
Lab value:

ammonia

15 - 56 (µmol/L)

22
Lab value:

albumin

3.5 - 5 (g/dL)

23
Lab value:

PT (normal/control)

(prothrombin time)

PT normal/control: 11 - 12.5 seconds

24
Lab value:

PT (therapeutic)

(prothrombin time)

1.5 - 2 times the control/normal value

Example:

  • 11 x 1.5 = 16.5
  • 12.5 x 2 = 25
  • Therapeutic level: 16.5 - 25 seconds

Labs are different and may have a different control. If there is not a control number indicated use 11 - 12.5. The higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.

25
Lab value:

INR (normal and therapeutic)

 (international normalized ratio)

 

INR

  • normal: 0.8 - 1.1
  • therapeutic: 2 - 3: The higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.

26
Lab value:

aPTT (normal/control)

(activated partial thromboplastin time)

a PTT normal/control: 25 - 35 seconds

27
Lab value:

aPTT (therapeutic)

(activated partial thromboplastin time)

aPTT: 1.5 - 2.5 times the control/normal value

Example:

  • 25 x 1.5 = 37.5 seconds
  • 35 x 2.5 = 87.5 seconds
  • Therapeutic level: 37.5 - 87.5 seconds

Labs are different and may have a different control. Some labs use 20-30 and some use 30-40. If there is not a control number indicated use 25-35 seconds. The higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. ​But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.​

 

 

28
Lab value:

amylase and lipase

0 - 160 (U/L)

29
Lab value:

 HbA1c

(glycated hemoglobin)

 HbA1c

  • non-diabetic: 4 - 5.7%
  • good diabetes control: < 7%
  • poor diabetes control: > 9%

30
Lab value:

Blood sugar

  • fasting
  • random
  • critical

Blood sugar

  • fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL (3.9 - 6.1 mmol/L) - no food for at least 8 hours before the test
  • random: ≤ 200 mg/dL (≤ 11.1 mmol/L)- may have eaten before the test
  • critical: < 50 or > 400 mg/dL (< 2.8 - > 22.2 mmol/L)
     

 

.

31
Lab value:

BNP

(B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide)

0 - 100 (pg/mL)

32
Lab value:

troponin

0 - 0.04 (ng/mL)

33
Lab value:

CK

(creatine kinase)

22 - 198 (U/L)

34
Lab value:

uric acid

2.4 - 7 (mg/dL)

35
Therapeutic drug level:

digoxin

1 - 2 (ng/mL)

2 or greater is considered toxicity

36
Therapeutic drug level:

lithium

 0.6 - 1.2 (mmol/L)

2 or greater is considered toxicity.

37
Therapeutic drug level:

phenytoin

10 - 20 (mcg/mL)

Greater than 20 is considered toxic.

38

What is the normal respiration rate for an adult?

12 - 20 breaths per minute.

39

What is a normal pulse oximetry/oxygen saturation (O2)?

95% - 100%

40

What is a normal heart rate for an adult?

  • 60 - 100 beats per minute
  • strong and regular

41

What is normal blood pressure (BP)?

90/60 to 120/80 (mmHg)

  • systolic is the first number
  • diastolic is the second number

42

What is a normal body temperature?

  • 96.8° - 100.4° F
  • 36° - 38° C