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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Nutrition and Diets > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition and Diets Deck (34)
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Which foods have calcium in them?

Foods with calcium:

  • greens: collard greens, broccoli, kale
  • bones: canned fish
  • dairy products: milk and cheese

Calcium intake prevents osteoporosis.


Which foods have sodium in them?

Foods with sodium are salty foods:

  • bacon
  • canned food
  • processed foods
  • table salt
  • bread
  • soy sauce

Too much sodium can lead to fluid retention.


Which foods have magnesium in them?

Foods with magnesium:

  • avocado
  • nuts
  • legumes
  • tofu


Which foods have potassium in them?

Foods with potassium:

  • bananas
  • oranges
  • tomatoes
  • potatoes
  • spinach



Which foods have phosphorous in them?

Foods with phosphorus:

  • meat
  • dairy
  • nuts


Which foods have carbohydrates in them?

Foods with carbohydrates are sugar and starches:

  • whole-grain carbs: oats, brown rice
  • refined carbs: cookies and cakes made with white flour

A diet high in refined carbs can contribute to obesity and diabetes mellitus.


Which foods have fat in them?

Foods with fat:

  • good fats: unsaturated fat - olive oil and nuts
  • bad fats: saturated fat - butter and fat from red meat

A diet high in bad fats can contribute to cardiac disease.


Which foods have fiber in them?

Foods with fiber:

  • fruits and vegetables
  • beans and legumes
  • grains

A diet high in fiber is very healthy.


Which foods have protein in them?

Foods with protein:

  • meat
  • dairy

Protein is very good for healing.


Which foods have vitamin C in them?

Foods with vitamin C:

  • citrus fruits

Vitamin C is good for healing.


Why are vitamin C and protein good for wound healing?

Both vitamin C and protein contain the building blocks for muscle and tissue growth


Which foods have folic acid in them?

Foods with folic acid:

  • green leafy vegetables

Folic acid prevents neural tube defects in fetus.



Which foods have iron in them?

Foods with iron:

  • meats
  • lentils and beans
  • spinach

Iron is the building block for red blood cells and is good for preventing anemia.



Which foods have vitamin K in them?

Foods with vitamin K:

  • green leafy vegetables

Vitamin K is the antidote to warfarin, an anticoagulant.


What foods have vitamin D in them?

Foods with vitamin D:

  • fortified milk and cereals

Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium.


What is an NPO diet?

NPO means nothing by mouth - no food or water.

It is commonly prescribed:

  • before some diagnostic tests and all surgeries
  • after abdominal surgery until bowel sounds come back


What is a clear liquid diet?

Clear liquid diet:

  • gelatin
  • hard candy
  • broth
  • coffee and tea
  • popsicles

It is indicated after many surgeries: check for bowel sounds first.


What is a full liquid diet?

Full liquid diet:

  • ice cream
  • milk
  • pudding
  • fruit and vegetable juice

It is indicated after the client has tolerated clear liquids.


What is a regular diet?

A regular diet is when the client has no restrictions on foods.


What is a soft diet?

Soft diet:

  • food needs to mashed or chopped like mashed potatoes

It is indicated for clients with difficulty chewing and swallowing.


What is a thickened liquids diet?

Thickened liquids diet:

  • fluids are thickened with a substance

It is indicated for those with difficulty swallowing, especially those that had a stroke or are elderly.


What is a fluid-restricted diet?

Fluid-restricted diet is a 24-hour restriction of:

  • 1000 mL or 
  • 1500 mL or 
  • 2000 mL

It is indicated for clients with heart failure or renal failure.


What is a renal diet?

Renal diet:

  • low in fluids, electrolytes (especially sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) and proteins

Kidneys can’t get rid of extra water or the toxins from the breakdown of protein and electrolytes.


What is a low purine/uric acid diet?

Low purine/uric acid diet is for clients with gout:

  • avoid foods such as meats, alcohol, and fish

These foods break down into purines and then uric acid which builds up toxins in the body.


What is a cardiac diet?

Cardiac diet:

  • low fat, low cholesterol, low sodium
  • high in fruits and veggies, whole-grains

This healthy diet prevents the build-up of plaque on arteries which can contribute to cardiac disease.


What is a fat-restricted diet?

Fat-restricted diet is for malabsorption diseases of the:

  • liver, gallbladder or pancreas

The organs are unable to release the enzymes that breakdown fat.


What is a diabetic diet?

Diabetic diet is for clients with diabetes mellitus:

  • low in sugar and refined carbohydrates

The pancreas doesn't release enough insulin to transport glucose into cells. 


What is a low-fiber diet?

Low fiber diet is for inflammatory bowel diseases.

Low fiber prevents diarrhea.


What is a high fiber diet?

High fiber diet is for preventing constipation.

Fiber prevents constipation by adding bulk.


What is a high-calorie, high-protein diet for?

High-calorie, high-protein diet:

  • for debilitating diseases like cancer, burns, and COPD

Extra calories are needed because the body burns off calories quickly.


What is a sodium-restricted diet?

Sodium-restricted diet is < 2 grams of sodium a day (about 1 teaspoon).

  • it is for hypertension, heart failure, and renal disease

Too much sodium can cause fluid volume overload since salt holds onto water.


What is a gluten-free diet?

Gluten-free diet is for celiac disease and those with gluten sensitivity:

  • no BROW: barley, rye, oats, and wheat
  • instead eat corn, rice or millet

The body doesn't make the protein that breaks down gluten. 


What is a low tyramine diet?

Low tyramine diet is for clients taking MAOIs (a type of antidepressant medication). Avoid aged foods such as:

  • soy sauce
  • liver
  • aged cheese
  • smoked and processed meats
  • alcohol

The client can go into a hypertensive crisis if an MAOI and tyramine containing food is taken together.


Explain the difference between:

  • Vegetarian diet
  • Vegan diet
  • Lacto-vegetarian diet
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet

  • Vegetarian diet: no animal foods
  • Vegan diet: plants only
  • Lacto-vegetarian: dairy and plants
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: dairy, eggs and plants