Perioperative Nursing Flashcards Preview

NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Perioperative Nursing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perioperative Nursing Deck (45)
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1
Q

What paperwork needs to be signed and witnessed before a client leaves for surgery?

A

Informed consent: surgery is an invasive procedure and there are risks the client needs to be aware of.

  • the HCP explains the risks
  • the client signs the form and the nurse can sign as a witness
  • if the client doesn’t understand the procedure or risks, the nurse informs the HCP

If it’s an emergency, the informed consent does NOT need to be signed.

2
Q

What are the general nursing interventions before a client goes to surgery?

A

Nursing interventions before surgery:

  • all paperwork is completed
  • labs have been obtained
  • blood type and crossmatch in case of hemorrhage
  • basic assessment and vital signs are obtained
  • teaching on what to expect afterward has started
3
Q

What clinical paperwork should be completed pre-operatively?

A

Clinical pre-operative paperwork:

  • history and physical: the HCP’s assessment of the client
  • labs: check for abnormalities and report them to HCP
  • diagnostic tests: specific to the problem
4
Q

What are the nursing interventions after a client returns from surgery?

A

Nursing interventions after a client returns from surgery:

  • assess for complications
  • implement safety precautions
  • teach about tubes, incisions, and preventing complications
5
Q

What diet is the client on before surgery?

A

The client is NPO for at least 8 hours before surgery.

If it’s an emergency the client can go to surgery right away. NPO = nothing by mouth.

6
Q

Which 2 bracelets should be applied to the client before surgery?

A

Before surgery apply:

  1. ID bracelet with name, birthday, and medical record number
  2. medication allergy bracelet
7
Q

What should be removed before the client goes to surgery?

A

Before surgery, remove jewelry, makeup, dentures, hairpins, nail polish, glasses, contacts, and prostheses.

8
Q

Where should the client’s valuables be placed in a healthcare facility?

A

Give valuables to family or lock in a safe.

9
Q

What should be documented about the client pre-operatively in regards to going to the bathroom and medications?

A

Document pre-operatively:

  • the last time the client ate, drank and urinated
  • what meds were taken that day
10
Q

What medication is commonly prescribed before surgery?

A

Antibiotics: to help decrease the risk of post-op infection

11
Q

Pre-operatively, how will a client’s urinary needs to taken care of?

A

The client will either urinate before surgery or get a foley catheter inserted before surgery.

12
Q

How will a surgical site be cleaned?

A

The site may be shaved and an antibacterial solution will be applied to prevent infection.

13
Q

What psychological problem should be assessed before a client goes to surgery?

A

Assess for anxiety before surgery.

Give anxiolytic meds to decrease anxiety if needed.

14
Q

If the client is having abdominal surgery, what treatment will the client get before the surgery?

A

Before abdominal surgery, the client may get an enema or laxative to clean out the bowels.

15
Q

Teaching:

Pain control after surgery

A

Teaching after surgery about pain control:

  • pain medicine options
  • possible pain pump and how to use (patient-controlled analgesia/PCA)
  • splinting the incision when coughing
16
Q

Teaching:

Preventing pneumonia and atelectasis after surgery

A

Teaching about how to prevent pneumonia and atelectasis after surgery:

  • turn, cough and deep breath
  • use the incentive spirometer

Both of these interventions help open up the lungs and break up any mucus that may start to form.

17
Q

What are the 4 steps to teach the client about how to use an incentive spirometer?

A

Steps to use an incentive spirometer:

  1. place mouth tightly around the mouthpiece
  2. inhale slowly and keep the floating indicator between 600 and 900 marks on the device (or higher marks depending on what the client can do)
  3. hold the breath for 5 seconds
  4. exhale through pursed lips

Repeat 10 times every hour!

18
Q

Teaching:

Preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after surgery

A

Teaching on how to prevent DVT after surgery:

  • ankle pumps/ foot exercises
  • sequential compression devices (SCD boots)
  • compression socks

These interventions increase blood circulation so the client doesn’t get a blood clot. If a blood clot forms it could break loose and travel to the lungs causing a pulmonary embolism that can kill the client.

19
Q

Why is a set of vital signs obtained right before the client gets wheeled off for surgery?

A

Vital signs are obtained to make sure the client isn’t having any obvious complications such as dysrhythmias, difficulty breathing, infection or bleeding.

20
Q

Teaching:

Tubes and surgery

A

Before surgery, teach the client about expected tubes:

  • inform where the tubes will be coming from so the client is not alarmed when waking up from surgery
21
Q

What are the common types of tubes or lines post-op?

A

Common tubes/lines post-op are:

  • intravenous (IV) tubing
  • Foley catheter
  • wound drainage tubes (JP drain)
  • chest tubes
  • endotracheal tube (ET)
  • nasal cannula
  • nasogastric tube (NG)
  • pulse oximetry (O2 sat)
  • telemetry (EKG)
  • vacuum-assisted wound closure (wound vac)
22
Q

What is this?

A

Foley catheter

23
Q

What is this?

A

Wound drainage tube (Jackson-Pratt drain)

24
Q

What is this?

A

Chest tube container

25
Q

What kind of tube is this?

A

Endotracheal tube (ET)

26
Q

What kind of tubing is this?

A

Nasal cannula for oxygen

27
Q

What kind of tube is this?

A

Nasogastric tube (NG)

28
Q

What is this?

A

Telemetry monitoring (EKG)

29
Q

What is this?

A

Vacuum-assisted wound closure (wound vac) to help with healing.

30
Q

How will the surgeon know where on the body to operate on?

A

The surgeon will mark the operative site with a marker.

  • The team in the OR will do a “time-out” to make sure they have the:
    • right client
    • the right procedure
    • the right operative area

OR = operating room

31
Q

What are the basic nursing assessments when a client comes back from surgery?

A

Basic nursing assessment after surgery:

  • assure correct post-op position
  • assess respirations/breathing
  • check vital signs and LOC
  • assess pain and nausea
  • assess operative site or dressing
  • check any drains/tubes
  • quick full-body assessment
32
Q

After the post-op assessment, what are the basic nursing interventions?

A

Basic nursing interventions after post-op assessment:

  • give pain meds and anti-nausea meds if needed
  • get client comfortable in bed
  • put bed in lowest position
  • put side rails up
  • give client call light
  • check back on client in 30 minutes
33
Q

What is most important to assess for post-surgery?

A

Complications

34
Q

Immediate Complication

What are 5 immediate post-op complications?

A

Immediate post-op complications are:

  1. hypoxia
  2. pulmonary embolism
  3. pulmonary edema
  4. hemorrhage/shock/fluid volume deficit
  5. wound dehiscence and evisceration
35
Q

Immediate Complication

What are the signs and symptoms of hypoxia?

A

Signs and symptoms of hypoxia:

  • restlessness
  • low oxygen saturation
  • decreased LOC

The immediate treatment is to give oxygen.

36
Q

Immediate Complication

What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism?

A

Signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism:

  • difficulty breathing
  • blood-tinged sputum

Immediate intervention is to place in high Fowler’s position and give oxygen.

37
Q

Immediate Complication

What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary edema?

A

Signs and symptoms of pulmonary edema:

  • difficulty breathing
  • pink frothy sputum
  • low O2 reading

Immediate interventions are to STOP fluids, high-Fowler’s and give O2.

38
Q

Immediate Complication

What are the signs and symptoms of hemorrhage?

A

Signs and symptoms of hemorrhage:

  • bright red blood from the surgical site
  • low BP, high HR

Immediate interventions are to put pressure on site and call surgeon for possible admission back to surgery.

39
Q

Immediate Complication

What is wound dehiscence and evisceration?

A
  • Dehiscence is when the surgical incision opens
  • Evisceration is when the abdominal organ comes out of the incision

Immediate intervention is to put a sterile, saline-soaked dressing over site.

40
Q

Why is urinary retention a common postoperative complication?

A

Urinary retention is caused by side effects of anesthesia and pain.

41
Q

What are the post-operative interventions for urinary retention?

A

Interventions for urinary retention:

  • pour warm water on perineum
  • stand up and walk
  • straight cath client as a last resort
42
Q

Why is constipation a common postoperative complication?

A

Constipation can be caused by side effects of opioid pain meds and inactivity.

43
Q

What are the post-operative interventions for constipation?

A

Interventions for constipation:

  • encourage fluids, food with fiber, and walking
  • stool softeners and laxatives as a last resort
44
Q

What is included in discharge teaching post-op?

A

Discharge teaching post-op:

  • report signs of infection and bleeding
  • no heavy lifting
  • sutures are removed in about a week
45
Q

When can a client be discharged post-op?

A

A client can be discharged post-op when:

  • A&Ox3
  • has voided and can walk
  • vital signs stable
  • pain and nausea is controlled by PO meds
  • minimal bleeding from operative site
  • HCP has signed the discharge paperwork
  • follow-up appointments are made
  • discharge teaching is done
  • has someone to drive them home