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Flashcards in Lab Manual Packet Deck (204):
1

The center of embalming circulation

The arch of the aorta

2

Since the arch of the aorta is the center of embalming circulation, it is imperative to

Select an injection site as close as possible to the arch

3

The center of venous drainage

The right atrium of the heart

4

Medial

Going toward the middle of the body; toward the midsagittal plane

5

Lateral

Going away from the middle of the body; away from the midsagittal plane

6

Superficial

Going toward the surface of the body

7

Superficialis

Noting a superficial artery, vein, nerve or other structure near the body surface.

8

Deep

Going toward the center of the body well below the body surface

9

Anterior

Situated at or directed toward the front of the body

10

Posterior

Situated at or directed toward the back of the body

11

Bifurcate

To divide into two branches (equal sizes)

12

Superior

Going toward the head

13

Inferior

Going toward the feet

14

Abut

To touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyelids.

15

Articulation

Place of union between two or more bones

16

Subcutaneous

Situated or occurring beneath the skin

17

Buccal cavity

Vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums, and teeth

18

Canalization

Formation of new channels in a tissue

19

Lumen of a vessel

The hollow space within an artery, intestine, or anatomical, tubelike structure. Will decrease in diametric size as they distance themselves from the aorta and vena cava.

20

Cachexia

General deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting. May occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.

21

Desiccation marks

May occur in the area of right common carotid artery caused by instruments at this injection site; occur from damage to the surface of the skin

22

The external iliac vein becomes the_________ as it passes through the ilium bone

Femoral vein

23

Anatomical guide

Any surface, prominence, or structure which is used to establish the location of adjacent structures or prominence. A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known.

24

Anatomical limits

The point of origin and termination of a vessel as expressed in relation to adjacent structures or prominences. Used to designate boundaries of arteries.

25

Linear guide

Imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin which represents the approximate location of a deeper lying structure or prominence

26

Another word for brachiocephalic artery

Innominate

27

The right common carotid artery is a terminal branch of the

Brachiocephalic artery

28

The ______________ is the first branch off the arch of the aorta

Brachiocephalic artery

29

The _____________ is the second branch off the arch of the aorta

Left common carotid artery

30

Linear guide of the common carotid artery

A point from the sternoclavicular articulation to the anterior surface of the lobe of the ear.

31

The carotid artery lies along the medial border of the

sternocleidomastoid muscle

32

The left common carotid artery is _______ than the right common carotid artery

Longer

33

Right common carotid artery begins at...

The level of sternoclavicular articulation

34

The right common carotid artery terminates at....

The level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage

35

The left common carotid artery beings at...

The level of the second costal cartilage

36

The left carotid artery terminates at...

The superior border of the thyroid cartilage

37

Supraclavicular incision

Along the superior boarder of the clavicular bone (limit to three inches)

38

Most funeral homes prefer the incision to be along the...

Inferior border of the Medial 1/3 of the clavicle bone

39

An incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries is made along the....

Superior border of the medial 1/3 of the clavicle.

40

Parallel incision

An incision made along the posterior boarder of the inferior sternocleidomastoid muscle. (Not used in embalming)

41

Restricted clavicle method (incision)

Involves utilization of both common carotids and both internal jugular veins. Recommended for difficult cases.

42

Considerations (pros) of the restricted cervicle method

- direct distribution to the face
- close to center of venous drainage
- close to center of embalming circulation
-fluid will enter the head from vertebral arteries
- has no branches except it's terminal branches

43

Precautions (cons) of restricted cervicle method

- incision may be visible after dressing
- tubes may leave mark on face
- face may be over injected on the left side when using right common carotid as an injection site and vice versa

44

Internal and external carotid arteries originate...

At the bifurcation of the left and right common carotid arteries at the superior boarder of thyroid cartilage

45

Bifurcation of internal and external carotid arteries occur _________ not ___________

Front to back, not side to side

46

External carotid artery: anterior branch

Primary blood supply to the face

47

Internal carotid artery: posterior branch

Primary blood supply to the brain.

48

The accompanying vein to the internal carotid artery

Internal jugular vein

49

The internal jugular vein lies

Lateral and superficial to the common carotid artery

50

The common carotid artery will lie....

Medial and deep to the internal jugular vein.

51

The external facial artery is also called the

Maxillary artery

52

External facial/maxillary artery

Branch off the external carotid artery that supplies blood to the cheeks and lips

53

The external facial/maxillary artery runs along the___________ border of the mandible just anterior to the ________________________

inferior, angle of the mandible.

54

Place of incision for the external facial/maxillary artery

Along the anatomical guide, not more than one inch in length, directly over the mandibular notch.

55

The right subclavian artery arises from

right brachiocephalic artery

56

Right subclavian artery terminates at....

The lateral boarder of the first rib.

57

The Left subclavian artery arises from

the arch of the aorta as the third branch. Begins at the level of the second costal cartilage.

58

Left subclavian artery terminates at...

The lateral boarder of the first rib

59

The left subclavian artery is _______ than the right subclavian artery

Longer

60

Each subclavian artery gives off four branches:

1) left and right vertebral
2) left and right internal mammary
3) left and right costocervical
4) left and right thyrocervical

61

All incisions used in arterial injection should be limited to

No more than three inches

62

Left and right vertebral arteries originate from the

left and right subclavian arteries and terminates by forming the basilar artery in the foramen magnum.

63

Place of incision: subclavian artery

Along the inferior border of the lateral 1/3 of the clavicle bone, exposing the vessel near its point of termination

64

The axillary artery is a continuation of the_____________Artery and terminates by becoming the____________ artery

Subclavian, brachial

65

Anterior boundary of the axillary space

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle

66

Posterior boarder of the base of the axillary space

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle.

67

Medial boundary of the base of the axillary space

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall

68

Lateral boundary of the base of the axillary space

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm

69

Mid-axillary line of the base of the axillary space

A vertical line drawn from the center of the medial boarder of the base of the axillary space

70

the axillary artery runs through the center of ____________________ and parallel to the _____________ of the upper extremity when abducted

the base of axillary space, long axis

71

the axillary artery is posterior to the __________ border of the _______________ muscle

medial border, coracobrachialis

72

The axillary artery begins at______________________

The lateral border of the first rib

73

The axillary artery terminates at __________________

The inferior border of the tendon of the teres major muscle

74

Place of incision for the axillary artery

Along the anterior margin of the hairline of the axilla

75

The vessels in the axillary space are relatively __________________(deep/superficial)

Superficial

76

The axillary artery will lie ___________and __________to the axillary vein

Lateral and deep

77

The brachial artery is a continuation of the _____________

Axillary artery

78

The brachial artery terminates at the __________ where it bifurcates to become the ___________and ___________arteries

Elbow, ulnar and radial

79

Brachial artery lies _________ to the medial border of the belly of the _________________ muscle

Posterior, biceps brachii

80

Brachial artery begins at the inferior border of the tendon of the __________________muscle

Teres major

81

Brachial artery terminates at the point just inferior to the ____________________

Antecubital fossa (elbow)

82

Brachial vein's accompanying vein for drainage

Basilic vein

83

Basilic vein is _________and ___________]to the brachial artery

Medial and superficial

84

The brachial artery will lie _______and __________to the basilic vein

Lateral and deep

85

Radial artery originates at the

Bifurcation of the brachial artery

86

Radial artery is on the surface of the forearm from center of the Antecubital fossa to the center of the base of the _______________

second digit

87

Radial artery is just _________ to the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis muscle

Lateral

88

Ulnar artery originates at the bifurcation of the ____________ and is ____________ than the radial artery

Brachial artery, larger

89

Ulnar artery is on the surface of the forearm from the center of the Antecubital fossa to

A point between the fourth and fifth digits

90

Ulnar artery lies _____ to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle

Lateral

91

Volar arch

The same as deep & superficial palmar arch

92

Brachiocephalic artery is the first branch off of the __________ and is only on the _________ side

Aortic arch, right

93

Brachiocephalic artery is about ________inches long

2-3

94

Right brachiocephalic vein will lie _________and________to the right brachiocephalic artery

Lateral and superficial

95

Right brachiocephalic artery will lie _______and ________to the right brachiocephalic vein

Medial and deep

96

The aorta is divided into ____ parts

4

97

The 4 divisions of the aorta

1) ascending aorta
2) arch of the aorta
3) descending thoracic
4) descending abdominal

98

Ascending aorta arises from the

Left ventricle of the heart

99

Arch of the aorta continues from the __________________ and is the center of _________________

Ascending aorta, embalming circulation

100

Why is the heart excluded from embalming circulation?

Because at death the tricuspid valve as well as the bicuspid or mitral valve shut down

101

The descending thoracic and abdominal aorta runs along

The left side of the spine

102

The diaphragm (phrenic muscle) divides the

Descending thoracic aorta from the descending abdominal aorta

103

All major trunk trunk arteries arise or originate from

The descending aorta

104

In infants, the artery to raise for injection is the

Descending abdominal aorta or the femoral artery

105

Superior (from above) and inferior (from below) vena cava empty into the

Right atrium of the heart

106

All veins have valves except for the

Superior and inferior vena cava

107

All veins (except the portal veins) will eventually drain into the

Superior and inferior vena cava

108

Portal veins lead to the

Liver

109

Common iliac artery originates at

The descending abdominal aorta.

110

Descending abdominal aorta bifurcates into the

Right and left common iliac arteries

111

Common iliac vein lies directly ________ to the common iliac artery

Inferior

112

Common iliac artery lies directly ___________ to the common iliac vein

Superior

113

External iliac artery is an extension of the

Common iliac artery

114

External iliac artery lies along the medial borer of the

Psoas major muscle

115

The external iliac vein lies _________ and ________to the external iliac artery

Medial and deep

116

The external iliac artery will lie ________and_______to the external iliac vein

Lateral and superficial

117

Internal iliac artery originates from the

Common iliac artery

118

Internal iliac artery branches off approximately half way down the _____________ muscle toward the __________

Psoas major, pubic viscera

119

Internal iliac artery carries blood to the organs in the

Pubic cavity

120

Artery usually severed in autopsy cases

Internal iliac artery

121

Another name for the internal iliac artery

Hypogastric artery

122

Femoral artery is a continuation of

The external iliac artery

123

Femoral artery lies on the surface of the thigh from the center of the _____________ to the center point on the medial condyle of the __________ bone

Inguinal ligament, femur

124

Condyle

Rounded articular process of a bone

125

Femoral artery runs through the center of the ___________, bounded laterally by the __________muscle and medially by the _______________ muscle

Femoral triangle, sartorius muscle, adductor longus

126

Femoral artery begins at the point _________ to the center of the ____________

Posterior, Inguinal ligament

127

Femoral artery terminates at the opening in the _______________ muscle

Adductor Magnus

128

Incision sight for femoral artery would be along any portion of the _____________________ of the linear guide

Superior two thirds

129

Relative position of femoral vein _________ at the Inguinal ligament, progressing to immediately _________ at the apex of the femoral triangle.

Medial, posterior

130

In theory, when injecting humectants/ dyes you should always use the

Femoral artery

131

Femoral vein will lie ________and ________to the femoral artery

Medial and deep

132

Femoral artery will lie ________and________to the femoral vein

Lateral and superficial

133

Base of the femoral triangle

Inguinal ligament ( pouparts ligament )

134

Lateral border of the femoral triangle

Sartorius muscle

135

Medial border of the femoral triangle

Adductor longus

136

Apex of the femoral triangle

Adductor Magnus ( not part of femoral triangle)

137

Another name of femoral triangle

Scarpa's triangle

138

Profunda femoris artery will bifurcate from the _________ aspect of the femoral artery w/in scarpa's triangle

Anterior

139

Profunda femoris artery descends downward along the __________ aspect of the thigh

Lateral

140

Profunda femoris artery terminates at the

Knee

141

Popliteal artery is an extension of the

Femoral artery

142

Popliteal artery runs through the center of the _____________ parallel to the long axis of lower extremity

Popliteal space

143

Popliteal artery begins at the opening of the ____________ muscle

Adductor Magnus

144

Popliteal artery terminates at the _____________

Inferior border of the popliteus muscle

145

Anterior tibial artery originates at the

Bifurcation at the popliteal artery

146

Anterior tibial artery runs from the _________ border of the ________ to the anterior surface of the _________ joint

Lateral, patella, ankle

147

Place of incision of the anterior tibial artery

Along lateral margin of the inferior 1/3 of the crest of tibia bone

148

The peroneal artery is a branch off of the

Posterior tibial artery

149

Posterior tibial artery originates at the

Bifurcation at the popliteal artery

150

Posterior tibial artery runs from the center of the __________ space to a point midway between the _______________ and the calcaneus bone

Popliteal, medial malleolus

151

Place of incision for the posterior tibial artery

Midway between the medial malleolus and the calcaneus tendon

152

Dorsal is pedis artery is an extension of the

Anterior tibial artery

153

Dorsalis pedis artery runs from the center of the anterior surface of the ___________ to a point between the first and second ________

Ankle joint, digits (toes)

154

Place of incision of the dorsalis pedis artery

Along superior 1/3 of the linear guide-superficial.

155

Planters arch is formed at the base of the _______anteriorly by the ________________ artery and posteriorly by the __________________

Digits (toes), dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial artery

156

Other factors governing selection of arteries to be used for injection

1) age
2) sex
3) weight
4) fat distribution
5) disfigurations
6) disease
7) edema
8) location obstruction
9) trauma
10) medico-legal requirements
11) cause of death
12) manner of death

157

Difference between a medical examiner autopsy and a hospital autopsy

Hospitals need permission and they do not typically return viscera; medical examiners do not need permission, and they typically return the viscera.

158

N.A.S.H. Cause of death

N-Natural
A-Accident
S-Suicide
H-Homicide

159

Difference between a medical examiner and a coroner

Medial examiners investigate; coroners hold inquest

160

Blunt dissection

Separation and pushing aside of superficial fascia leading to blood vessels and the deep fascia surrounding blood vessels. Utilizing manual techniques or rounded ended instruments that separate rather than cut the protective tissues.

161

Ligate

To tie off an artery and vein upon completion of embalming

162

In case of blood borne pathogens, it is best to use the ________ artery because it is farther from your face

Femoral

163

5 different incisions

1) transvers
2) diagonal
3) longitudinal
4) T-shaped
5) triangular (wedge)

164

Coagulation

The process of converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or contact with a chemical such as alcohol or aldehyde.

165

Coagulation is a specific form of ______________

Agglutination

166

Three different suture needles

1) half moon- neatest incision, most dangerous
2) J- shaped ( single curve)
3) S-shaped ( double curve)- safest, messy closure

167

Single, intradermal, subcutaneous suture ( hidden stitch)

Made with a single suturing needle with non-cutting edge, and is used on exposed areas of the body, particularly in plastic surgery operations

168

Double intradermal or double subcutaneous suture

Made in the same manner as single intradermal stitch, except a suturing needle is used on each end of the ligature (two suturing needles) and ligatures are crossed at each stitch using a crisscross motion like tying shoes. Gives more protection against leakage in comparison with the single intradermal stitch.

169

Baseball stitch or sail stitch

Type of stitch used on baseball covers and was the type of incision used by the Egyptians. Usually uses an s-shaped suture needle

170

Veins and arteries have _______ layers

3

171

Lock stitch, half stitch, or blanket suture

Makes tight, leak proof closure, but creates unsightly ridge on surface of incision.

172

Figure 8 suture

Anchor surface ligature around pins. Considered a temporary suture. Suggested use is to bring and hold lips of incision together before and during embalming operation until more permanent closure is made.

173

Draw stitch

Same as single intradermal suture except this stitch penetrates completely through the skin.

174

Worm stitch

Easily waxed over if used on exposed areas of the body. Used to turn under excess margins of the skin. Opposite of the draw stitch in regards to exposed areas of the ligature.

175

Whip stitch, continuos glover stitch or roll stitch

Used by passing ligature through both sides of the incision from the outside going from one side to the other as the incision is sutured.

176

Bridge suture, temporary interrupted suture

Individual stitch knotted at the tissue edge. Normally used as a temporary stitch, may be applied prior to embalming to align tissues

177

Purse string suture

Used to close small punctures or holes. A series of small stitches are made through skin around circumference of the opening. The ends of thread are then knotted.

178

Arteries have ______ heavy coats and are ______ walled

3, thick

179

Three layers of artery wall

1) tunica intima (inner layer)
2) tunica media ( middle layer)
3) tunica adventica ( outer layer)

180

Vasa vasorum

Blood vessels supplying nutrients to the larger arteries and veins. Distributed to the walls of the larger veins and arteries throughout the vascular system.

181

Veins have _____ coats and are _______ walled

3, thin

182

Arteries have ______ lumen

Small

183

Veins have ________ lumen

Large

184

Nerves have no _______ or __________

Lumen, vasa vasorum

185

Organs in the right hypochondriac region

Greater part of right lobe of the liver, hepatic flexure of the colon, part of the right kidney, gall bladder

186

Organs in the epigastric region

Greater part of the stomach including cardiac and pyloric orifices. Left lobe and part of right lobe of liver, greater part of the pancreas, duodenum, suprarenal capsules and parts of the kidneys.

187

Organs in the left hypochondriac region

Fundus of the stomach, spleen, tail of the pancreas, splenic fixture of the colon, part of the left lobe of the liver

188

Organs in the Right lumbar region

Ascending colon, lower part of the right kidney, part of small intestine

189

Organs of the umbilical region

Transverse colon, parts of both kidneys, parts of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Part of great omentum and mesentary,

190

Organs of the left lumbar region

Part of the left kidney, descending colon, part of the omentum, part of small intestine.

191

Organs of the right Inguinal (iliac) region

The cecum and vermiform appendix, part of ascending colon

192

Organs in the hypogastric region

Part of the small intestines, bladder in children and in adults if distended, uterus during pregnancy

193

Organs of the left Inguinal (iliac) region

Sigmoid flexure of colon and part of the descending colon

194

The trocar is inserted where?

The umbilical region, two inches to the left and two inches above the navel.

195

What will come out of the stomach during aspiration?

Brown coffee ground consistency with acrid or sour smell

196

What will come out of the cecum during aspiration?

Yellow fecal matter

197

What will come out of the urinary bladder during aspiration?

Yellow bubbles

198

What will come out of the right side of the heart when aspirated?

Dark red venous blood (atrium)

199

What will come from the lungs when aspirated?

Clear or red foam or frothy white; no odor

200

What will come from the brain during aspiration?

Clear fluid, may contain small specks of tissue with no odor. May be creamy white

201

Pubic symphysis

Fibrocartilage that joins the two pubic bones in the median plane

202

Anterior superior iliac spine

Hip bone

203

Father of US/ Modern embalming

Dr. Thomas Holmes

204

The right subclavian artery begins at

the sternoclavicular articulation