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Embalming > Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab Deck (286):
1

ABSCESS

a localized accumulation of pus.

2

ABSORPTION

the process of taking in, as in a colored object which absorbs certain rays of light and reflects other rays giving the object its recognizable color

3

ABUT

To touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyelids.

4

ACCESSORY CHEMICAL

Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and Cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to hardening compounds, preservative powders, sealing agents, mold preventative agents, and pack application agents

5

ACETONE

dimethylketone; a colorless liquid which is used to soften and remove scabs; a solvent for restorative wax, or a stain remover.

6

ACQUIRED

presents itself after birth

7

ACQUIRED IMMUNE DERICIENCY SYNDROME / AIDS

A specific group of diseases or Conditions which are indicative of severe immunosuppression related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (MV); persons dead having had AIDS may exhibit conditions such as wasting syndrome, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma.

8

ACTION LEVEL / AL-EXPOSURE LIMITS

These levels are established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposures below the 8 hour permissible exposure limit (PEL) The AL for formaldehyde is 0.5 ppm.

9

ACTIVE CAPILLARY CONGESTION

occurs when the arterial supply to an area of the body is increased

10

ACTIVE DYES/STAINING DYES/COSMETIC DYES

Dyes which aid in restoring a life-like surface pigmentation to a body and also stain the body tissue cells.

11

ACTUAL PRESSURE

That pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body

12

ABRASION

Antemortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis

13

ACUTE

a disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration

14

ADIPOCERE aka GRAVE WAX

Soft whitish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the
Postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats

15

ADDISON’S DISEASE

Disease resulting from a deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones, with “bronze” discoloration of the skin and electrolyte imbalances.

16

ADSORPTION

Assimilation of gas, vapor, or dissolved matter by the surface of a solid or liquid

17

AEROBIC

In the presence of free oxygen

18

AEROSOL

Colloidal solution dispensed as a mist

19

AEROSOLIZATION

To disperse as an aerosol; minute particles of blood and water become atomized and suspended in air when water under pressure meets the blood drainage or when flushing an uncovered flush sink

20

AGGLUTINATION

Intravascular: the increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels which is a specific type of congealing.

21

AGONAL ALGOR

Decrease in body temperature immediately before death

22

AGONAL BACTERIAL MIGRATION

A process which is the result of capillary permeability changes, where the bacteria from the intestinal area of the body migrate to the blood vascular system and is spread throughout the body.

23

AGONAL COAGULATION

In reference to blood, a change from a fluid into a thickened mass.

24

AGONAL DEHYDRATION

The loss of moisture from the living body during the agonal state.

25

AGONAL EDEMA

Escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location immediately before death

26

AGONAL EXUDATION

An outpouring of lymph into the peritoneal cavity

27

AGONAL FEVER

Increase in body temperature immediately before death.

28

AGONAL INTUSSUSCEPTION

An invagination of an upper segment of intestine within a lower segment.

29

AGONAL PERIOD

Period immediately before somatic death

30

AIR PRESSURE APPARATUS

A method of creating injection pressure with air forced under pressure into a fluid chamber that displaces the arterial solution by pushing it into the arterial system of the body.

31

ALBUMIN

a protein found in blood plasma

32

ALBUMINURIA

An abnormally excessive amount of albumin in the urine.

33

ALCOHOL

an organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups

34

ALDEHYDE

an organic compound containing one or more –CHO groups.

35

ALGOR MORTIS

Post-mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature.

36

ALLERGEN

A material which can trigger an allergic reaction.

37

ALTERNATE DRAINAGE

Method of injection-drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while drainage is open which is a type of restricted drainage.

38

AMERICAN CONGRESS OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS aka ACGIH

An organization of professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions who are employed in occupational safety and health programs

39

AMINE

an organic compound containing nitrogen; any compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals.

40

AMINO ACID

Building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis Their basic formula is NH2-CHR-COOH an amino group, an alpha carbon, any aliphatic or aromatic radical, and a carboxyl group.

41

AMMONIA INJECTION TEST

Ammonia is injected hypodermically into the skin and if a reddish reaction occurs the body is still alive. This is a non expert test for death.

42

ANAEROBIC

In the absence of free oxygen

43

ANASARCA

Severe generalized edema

44

ANATOMICAL GUIDE

A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known.

45

ANATOMICAL LIMITS

Points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries of arteries.

46

ANATOMICAL POSITION

The body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body.

47

ANEMIA

a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin or both.

48

ANEURYSM

Localized abnormal dilation of outpocketing of a blood vessel resulting from a congenital defect or a weakness of the vessel wall

49

ANEURYSM HOOK

An embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels.

50

ANEURYSM NEEDLE

An embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels, which has an eye in the hook portion of the instrument for placing ligatures around the vessels.

51

ANGULAR BANDAGE SCISSORS

An instrument which is used for cutting bandages and/or clothing off the deceased.

52

ANGULAR SPRING FORCEPS

A multipurpose instrument used in the embalming process.

53

ANGULAR VEIN FORCEPS

An embalming instrument which has multiple uses, especially in helping remove blood from the veins.

54

ANOMALIES

Deviation from the normal

55

ANTECUBITAL

In front of the elbow/in the bend of the elbow

56

ANTEMORTEM

Before death

57

ANTERIOR

Toward the front

58

ANTERIOR NARES

the external openings of the nostril

59

ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ILIAC SPINE

A bony protuberance, that can be palpated topographically, found on the ilium, the superior, broad portion of the hipbone; the origin of the injuinal ligament and the sartorius muscle.

60

ANTIBODY

glycoprotein substance developed by the body in response to, and interacting specifically with, an antigen Also known as immunoglobulin.

61

ANTICOAGULANT FLUID

Ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals.

62

ANTIGEN

a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that react specifically with it.

63

ANTISEPTIC

A non-toxic disinfectant suitable for the use on animal tissue.

64

ANTISEPSIS

the prevention or inhibiting of the growth of causative microorganisms.

65

APERTURE

Opening

66

APNEA

Death brought about by a cessation of respiration or improper functioning of the respiratory apparatus; one of three modes of death described by Bichat.

67

APPARENT DEATH

Condition in which the manifestations of life are feebly maintained.

68

AQUEOUS SOLUTION

A solution in which water is the solvent.

69

ARRHYTHMIA

Uneven heartbeat.

70

ARTERIAL (VASCULAR) FLUID

The concentrated, preservative, embalming chemical that will be diluted with water to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming The purpose is for inactivating saprophytic bacteria and rendering the body tissues less susceptible to decomposition.

71

ARTERIAL SOLUTION

The mixture of arterial (vascular) fluid and water which is used for the arterial injection and may include supplemental fluids.

72

ARTERIAL TUBE

A tube used to inject embalming fluid into the body vascular system aka cannula.

73

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

The term applied to a number of pathological conditions causing a thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries.

74

ARTERY FIXATION FORCEPS

An embalming instrument whose purpose is to hold arterial tubes in the arteries [2 hole or 3 hole clamp]

75

ARTERY AND VEIN SCISSORS

An embalming instrument used for cutting arteries and veins to enable insertion of the arterial tubes into the arteries and drain tubes into the veins

76

ARTICULATION

Place of union between two or more bones.

77

ARTICULO-MORTIS

The movement of blood from the heart and arteries into the capillaries
and veins, which occurs at the moment of death.

78

ASCITES

Accumulation of serous fluids in the peritoneal cavity.

79

ASEPSIS

Freedom from infection and from any form of life; sterility.

80

ASPHYXIA

Insufficient intake of oxygen resulting from numerous causes aka apnea.

81

ASPIRATION

Withdrawal of gas, fluids, and semi-solids from body cavities and hollow viscera by means of suction with an aspirator and a trocar.

82

ASTHENIA

Indicates a weakness or feebleness of any organ or function.

83

ATHEROMA

Fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in atherosclerosis.

84

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

a form of arteriosclerosis marked by the deposition of lipids in the inner layer of arterial walls.

85

ATROPHY

a wasting, decrease in size of an organ or tissue.

86

AUTOCLAVE

Apparatus used for sterilization by steam pressure, usually at 250 F/ 120 C for a
specific time.

86

AUTOLYSIS

Self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own Formation without microbial assistance.

86

AUTOLYTIC ENZYME

The body's own digestive enzymes that are capable of destroying body cells (autolytic decomposition).

87

AUTOPSY

A postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition; a necropsy.

88

BACTEREMIA

The presence of bacteria in the blood

89

BACTERICIDAL AGENT

Destructive to bacteria.

90

BACTERIOLYSIS

Destruction of bacteria by action of certain chemical substances.

91

BACTERIOSTATIC AGENT

Agent that has the ability to inhibit or retard bacterial growth No destruction of viability of the microorganism is implied.

92

BALSAMIC SUBSTANCE

Resins combined with oil; a fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants.

93

BASE OF THE AXILLARY SPACE

The armpit

94

ANTERIOR BOUNDARY

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which
envelops the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle.

95

POSTERIOR BOUNDARY

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle.

96

MEDIAL BOUNDARY

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall.

97

LATERAL BOUNDARY

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm.

98

BASKET WEAVE SUTURE aka CROSS STITCH

A network of stitches which cross the borders of a cavity or excision to anchor fillers and to sustain tissues in their proper position.

99

BIOLOGICAL DEATH

Irreversible somatic death, where life cannot be restored.

100

BISCHLOROMETHYL ETHER aka BCME

A carcinogen potentially produced when formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite come into contact with each other; normally occurs only in a controlled laboratory setting and requires a catalyst.

101

BISTOURY

An embalming instrument which is a one piece scalpel used for making incisions and excisions.

102

BLEACHING AGENT

A chemical which lightens a skin discoloration.

103

BLISTER

a thin vesicle on the skin containing liquid matter.

104

BLOOD

Tissue that circulates through the vascular system and is composed of approximately 22% solids and 78% water.

105

BLOOD DISCOLORATION

Discolorations resulting from changes in blood composition, content, or location, either intravascularly or extravascularly.

106

BLOTCHED

having relatively large patches of color somewhat different from the remainder of the coloring.

107

BLUNT DISSECTION

The separation and pushing aside of the superficial fascia leading to blood vessels and then the deep fascia surrounding blood -vessels, utilizing manual techniques or round ended instruments which separate rather than cut the protective tissues.

108

BOIL aka FURUNCLE

Acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle.

109

BONE SEPARATOR/SEPARATOR

An embalming instrument used to maintain the elevation of the vessels above the surface of the skin.

110

BRIDGE SUTURE aka TEMPORARY INTERRUPTED SUTURE

Individual stitch knotted at the tissue edge; may be applied prior to embalming to align tissues.

111

BRUISE

(ecchymosis) an injury caused by a blow without laceration; a contusion.

112

BUCCAL CAVITY

Vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums, and teeth.

113

BUFFERS

A chemical which affects the stabilization of the acid-base(pH) balance within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissues.

114

BULB SYRINGE

Self-contained, soft rubber and manual pump designed to create pressure to deliver fluid as it passes through one-way valves located within the bulb It is used only to deliver fluids; it cannot be used for aspiration.

115

ALEXANDER M. BUTLEROV

(1828-1866) One of the discoverers of formaldehyde [Russian

116

CACHEXIA

General deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting It may occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis [Wasting Syndrome]

117

CADAVER

Dead human body used for medical purposes: including transplantation, anatomical dissection and study.

118

CADAVERIC SPASM

A prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscles into the rigidity of death aka instantaneous rigor mortis.

119

CALVARIUM

The dome-like superior portion of the cranium; that portion removed during cranial autopsy.

120

CALVARIUM CLAMP

A device used as a means of fastening the calvarium after a cranial autopsy.

121

CALVARIUM NEEDLES

Special needles which are used to anchor the calvaria securely in the head of autopsied cases and is applied with a needle injector.

122

CANALIZATION

Formation of new channels in a tissue.

123

CAPILLARIES

Minute blood vessels, the walls of which comprise a single layer of endothelial cells. where pressure filtration occurs.

124

CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY

Ability of substances to diffuse through capillary walls into the tissue spaces.

125

CAPRI GARMENT

Plastic protective garment designed to cover the legs, buttocks, and abdomen. A combination of pants and stockings.

126

CARBOHYDRATE

A compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen; sugars, starches, and glycogen.

127

CARBUNCLE

Circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis; Several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue.

128

CASE ANALYSIS

The total sum of those considerations given the case at hand, beginning before the embalming procedure is begun and continuing throughout the operation.

129

CATALEPSY

A condition in which the vital signs of life are feebly maintained and there is a waxy rigidity of the body.

130

CAUTERIZING AGENT

a chemical capable of drying tissues by searing; caustic.

131

CAVITATION

The formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of
tuberculosis.

132

CAVITY EMBALMING aka CAVITY TREATMENT

Direct treatment, other than vascular (arterial) injection, of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and injection.

133

CENTER OF FLUID DISTRIBUTION

Ascending and/or arch of the aorta.

134

CENTER OF VENOUS DRAINAGE

Right atrium of the heart.

135

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE MACHINE

Embalming machine that uses an electrical pump to create pressure either pulsating or non-pulsating aka modern embalming machine.

136

CHANNELING

Restorative treatment usually accompanied by aspiration, gravitation, or external pressure to remove gases or excess liquids from tissues; passages are made through the tissues with a scalpel, hypodermic needle, or trocar.

137

CHELATE

Substances that bind metallic ions such as EDTA -(Ethylenediarnine-tetraceticacid) used as an anticoagulant in embalming solutions.

138

CHEMICAL EVAPORATION

Dehydration caused by using too harsh of an arterial solution to embalm a dead human body.

139

CHICKEN FAT CLOT

A blood clot which contains all of the blood elements with red and white blood cells separated into distinct layers.

140

CHIN REST

One of several methods used for mouth closure (antiquated)

141

CIRCLE OF TRANSMISSION

The means by which a pathogen is passed from host to host.

142

GABRIAL CLAUDERUS

(Late 17th C.) An influential person in medical embalming who published a book about a method of embalming without evisceration [German]

143

CLINICAL DEATH

A phase of somatic death lasting from 5-6 minutes during which life may be restored.

144

CLOSED SYSTEM DRAINAGE

Drainage procedure that limits the exposure of the embalmer to the drainage. Tubing is attached to a drain tube allowing drainage to flow directly from a vein into a sanitary disposal system; tubing may also be attached to a trocar and aspirator allowing drainage to be taken from the right atrium of the heart to the sanitary disposal system.

145

CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS

Anaerobic, saprophytic, spore-forming bacterium responsible for tissue gas Referred to as a gas bacillus.

146

COAGULATION

The process of converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde

147

CO-ENZYMES OR ACCELERATORS

Substances which increase the activity of enzymes.

148

COINJECTION

The injection of a specialized chemical in conjunction with the routine arterial
chemical.

149

COINJECTION FLUID

A fluid used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of vascular (arterial) solutions.

150

COLD STIFFENING

A condition which occurs in dead bodies when exposed to temperatures near or below the freezing point, thus causing the tissues to become firm and rigid.

151

COLIFORM ORGANISMS

Microorganisms (Colon Bacillus) found normally in the colon.

152

COLLOID

a solution-like system in which the size of the solute particle is between 1 and 100 nanometers Particles of solute pass through filters but not membranes.

153

COMA

The irreversible cessation of brain activity and loss of consciousness; death beginning at the brain

154

COMBINATION TABLE

Preparation room equipment which may serve for both embalming and dressing human remains.

155

CONCURRENT DISINFECTION

Disinfection practices carried out during the embalming
process.

156

CONCURRENT DRAINAGE

Method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular (arterial) injection.

157

CONCUSSION

the immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function

158

CONTUSION

A bruise

159

CORNEA

Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil andadmits
light into the interior.

160

CORNEAL SCLERA BUTTON

That portion of the cornea recovered for transplantation. The cornea and sclera considered together comprising the tunica fibrosa or fibrous coat of the eye.

161

CORPSE

Legal term referring to a dead body.

162

CORONER

An official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent,
and unexplained deaths.

163

CORROSIVE

Causing visible destruction of living tissue at point of contact.

164

COSMETIC FLUID

Embalming fluid that contains dyes and coloring agents intended to Restore a more natural skin tone through the embalming process.

165

COUNTER STAINING COMPOUND

Dye that helps to cover internal discolorations such as jaundice.

166

COVERALL

Plastic garment designed to cover the body from the chest down to the upper thigh.

167

CRANIAL CAP

Embalming aid used on cases with cranial autopsies to absorb seepage and prevent the soiling of the casket pillow.

168

CRANIAL EMBALMING

Method used to embalm the contents of the cranial cavity through aspiration and injection of the cranial chamber by passage of a trocar through the cribiform plate.

169

CREPITATION

Crackling sensation produced when gases trapped in tissues are palpated, as in subcutaneous emphysema.

170

CREUTZFELD-JACOB DISEASE aka CJD

A disease of the central nervous system with unknown Etiology assumed to be a slow virus; because of unknown etiology, care givers using invasive procedures use extreme caution.

171

CRIBRIFORM PLATE

Thin, medial portion of the ethmoid bone of the skull.

172

CURRENT AND/OR JELLY CLOT

A blood clot which contains all of the blood elements coagulated in an evenly mixed mass.

173

CUTIS ANSERINA

A condition of skin puckering caused by the contraction of the erector pili.

174

LEONARDO DA VINCI

(1452-1519) Italian sculptor and painter produced anatomical plates; injected the arterial system for preservation of anatomical specimens.

175

DEATH

Irreversible cessation of all vital functions

176

DEATH BILL

A list of dead to be prayed for.

177

DEATH CANDLE

A luminous appearance like a candle flame, superstitiously thought to prestage death.

178

DEATH FIRE

A kind of ignis fatuus (glow) supposed to forebode death.

179

DEATH KNEEL

Stroke or tolling of a death bell.

180

DEATH RATTLE

Noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucous in the trachea and posterior oral cavity.

181

DEATH STRUGGLE

The semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death.

182

DEATH THROE

Spasm of death.

183

DEATH TOKEN

Signal of approaching death

184

DEATH TRANCE

A condition in which the muscles become rigidly fixed, the body becomes pale and cold, pulse and respiration are feeble.

185

DEATH WEIGHT

A small weight, such as a penny, laid on the eyelids to keep them closed.

186

DEATHLING

One liable to death, a mortal

187

DECAY

Decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria.

188

DECOMPOSITION

Separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of Microbial and/or autolytic enzymes.

189

DECONTAMINATION

Inactivation or removal of microbial toxins, as well as of living microbial pathogens themselves.

190

DENATURED PROTEIN

A protein whose structure has been changed by physical or chemical agents.

191

DENTAL FORMULA

An expression of the definition of mammals The number of teeth are given in form of a fraction, with the number of upper teeth over the number of lower teeth

192

DENTAL PROGNATHISM

(buck teeth) oblique insertion of the teeth.

193

DENTAL TIE

One of several methods used for mouth closure.

194

DEODORANTS/MASKING AGENTS/PERFUMING AGENTS

Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one

195

DERMA

The deep layer of skin under the epidermis aka dermis, skin, corium, or true skin.

196

DESICCATION

Rendered thoroughly dry, exhausted of moisture.

197

DESSICATION MARKS

Areas of embalmed tissue where excessive dehydration has occurred.

198

DESQUAMATION aka SKIN SLIP

Sloughing off of the epidermis, wherein there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis formally referred to as skin slip.

199

DEVIATIONS

a variation from the common or established.

200

DILATATION (DILATION)

the condition of the heart being enlarged, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of disease

201

DIALYSIS

Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable, membrane aka Selective Diffusion

202

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

The difference between potential and actual pressure.

203

DIFFUSION SOLUTION

Passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; movements of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids.

204

DILUTION

Substance thinned or reduced in concentration; a cosmetic lessened in brilliance.

205

DIPHTHERIA

An acute infectious disease characterized by the formation of a false membrane
on any mucous surface.

206

DISARTICULATE

Disjoining of bones.

207

DISINTEGRATION

Unchecked putrefaction eventually results in a complete breakdown and disappearance of all body structures, except the bones.

208

DISCOLORATION

Any abnormal color in or upon the human body.

209

DISEASE

Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a body part,
organ, or system.

210

DISSECTION

Act of cutting apart. Distend. To expand or swell.

211

DISINFECTANT

An agent, usually chemical, applied to inanimate objects/surfaces to destroy disease causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores.

212

DISINFECTION

The destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body.

213

DISTENSION

State of stretching out or becoming inflated aka swelling.

214

DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION

The movement of embalming solutions from the point of Injection
throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries.

215

DOWEL

a wooden or metal rod used as an armature.

216

DRAIN TUBE

Tubular instrument of varying diameter and shape, preferably with a plunger, that is inserted into a vein to aid in drainage of blood and to restrict the exit of vascular embalming solution.

217

DRAINAGE

Discharge or withdrawal of blood, interstitial fluid and embalming fluids from the body during vascular embalming. Usually removed through a vein of the body.

218

DRAINAGE FORCEPS

An embalming instrument which allows the removal of blood from the body without using the conventional drain tube.

219

DRENCH SHOWER

OSHA required safety device for a release of a copious amount of water in a short time.

220

DRUG DISCOLORATION

Antemortem discolorations resulting from the administration of drugs or chemotherapeutic agents.

221

DRY GANGRENE

Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries are obstructed.

222

DYE (COLORING AGENT)

Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution Dyes are classified as to their capacity to permanently impart color to the tissue of the body into which they are injected.

223

DYSPNEA

Difficult or painful breathing.

224

ECCHYMOSIS aka SUGGILLATION

Extravasation of blood into a tissue; aka bruise or
contusion.

225

ECZEMA

A disease of the skin characterized by itching, redness and scaling.

226

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM aka EEG

A record of the electrical activity of the brain.

227

ELECTRIC ASPIRATOR

A device that uses a motor to create a suction for the purpose of aspiration.

228

EMACIATION

excessive leanness; a wasted condition resulting in sunken surfaces of the face.

229

EMBALMER’S ECZEMA

A severe skin irritation due to prolonged exposure to formaldehyde or
other embalming chemicals.

230

EMBALMING

Process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance. Four types of embalming:

231

EMBALMING CAVITY

Direct treatment other than vascular (arterial) embalming of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and then injection of chemicals using a trocar.

232

EMBALMING HYPODERMIC

Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or a trocar.

233

EMBALMING REPORT aka CASE REPORT

Report filled out for each body prepared and for each body received from another funeral home.

234

EMBALMING SURFACE

Direct contact of internal or external body tissues with embalming chemicals.

235

EMBALMING VASCULAR

The use of the vascular systems of the body for preservation, disinfection and restoration; usually accomplished through injection of embalming solutions into the arteries and drainage from the veins.

236

EMBALMING ANALYSIS aka CASE ANALYSIS

That consideration given to the dead body prior to, during, and after the embalming procedure is completed; documentation is recommended.

237

EMBALMING PACK

Embalming where an absorbent material is saturated with an embalming chemical and placed in direct contact with the tissue.

238

EMBALMING POWDER

Embalming chemical in powder form; typically used for surface treatment of the remains.

239

EMBOLISM

Free floating object in the blood stream

240

ENDOENZYMES

The true metabolic enzymes of bacterium, produced within the bacterial cell
wall.

241

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

Procedures that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace such as sharps disposal container, self-sheathing needles.

242

ENUCLEATION

the removal of an entire mass or part, especially a tumor or the eyeball, without rupture.

243

ENVIRONMENT

The surroundings, conditions, or influences that affect an organism or the cells within an organism.

244

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY aka EPA

A governmental agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority.

245

ENZYME

An organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition.

246

ETHER

Clear, volatile liquid used as a wax solvent or to remove grease, oil, and adhesive tape stains.

247

ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRACETIC ACID (EDTA)

Is found in products as either the tetrasodium or disodium salt. They rect chemically to “bind” calcium, which inhibits the blood clotting mechanism. It is a skin irritant, causing dryness and cracking.

248

EXANTHEMATOUS DISEASE

Disease characterized by a rash, for example, measles.

249

EXPERT TESTS OF DEATH

Any procedure used to prove a sign of death, usually performed by medical personnel.

250

EXPOSURE INCIDENT

A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral, contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties.

251

EXPOSURE OCCUPATIONAL

Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties.

252

EXSANGUINATION

loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained

253

EXTERNAL PRESSURE

weight applied to a surface.

254

EXTRAVASCULAR BLOOD DISCOLORATION

Discoloration of the body outside the blood vascular system, for example, ecchymosis, petechia, hematoma, and postmortem stain.

255

EYE ENUCLEATION

Removal of the eye for tissue transplantation, research and education

256

EYE ENUCLEATION DISCOLORATION

Extravasation of blood as a result of eye enucleation.

257

EYELID OVERLAP

(outdated) Method of eye closure in which the upper lid is placed on top of
the lower lid.

258

FACIES HIPPOCRATICA

Expression or appearance of the facial features after death The look of death.

259

FACULTATIVE AEROBE

A microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen.

260

FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE

An organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

261

FAT

Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; chemically, a triglyceride ester, composed of glycerol and fatty acids.

262

FATTY ACIDS

A product of decomposition of fats.

263

FERMENTATION

Bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates

264

FEVER BLISTERS

Lesions of the mucous membrane of the lip or mouth usually caused by
Herpes simplex type 1.

265

FIRMING

Rigidity of tissue due to chemical reaction.

266

FIRST DEGREE BURN

(hyperemia) an injury caused by heat which produces redness of the
skin.

267

FIXATION

The act of making tissue rigid. The solidification of a compound.

268

FIXATIVE

An agent employed in the preparation of tissues for the purpose of maintaining the existing form of the structure. Many agents are used, the most important one being formalin.

269

FLOATER

A dead human body, in a body of water, which has generated sufficient decomposition gasses to float to the surface of the water (face down).

270

FLOW METER

A supplemental piece of equipment attached to the embalming machine which measures the flow of fluids in both gallons per hour and ounces per minute.

271

FLUID DIFFUSION

The movement of the arterial solution through the capillaries into the intercellular spaces, from an intravascular to an extravascular position.

272

FLUID DISTRIBUTION

The movement of the arterial solution from the point of injection through the blood vascular system.

273

FLUORESCEIN

A common dye which is used to test for blood circulation.

274

FLUSH (FLUSHING)

Intravascular blood discoloration that occurs when arterial solution enters an area (such as the face), but due to blockage, blood and embalming solution are unable to drain from the area.

275

FORMALDEHYDE DEMAND

that amount of formaldehyde necessary to overcome any nitrogen residue and cause the body proteins to become coagulated.

276

FORMALDEHYDE aka HCHO or CH20

Colorless, strong-smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant; a potential occupational carcinogen

277

FORMALDEHYDE GREY

Grey discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methyl hemoglobin.

278

FORMALDEHYDE RULE

OSHA regulation limiting the amount of occupation exposure to formaldehyde gas.

279

FUNCTIONAL DEATH

Somatic death

280

FORMALIN

A mixture of formaldehyde gas dissolved in water with 40% by volume, 37% by weight and contains 7% methyl alcohol to prevent polymerization.

281

JEAN GANNAL

(1791-1882) An influential person in medical embalming who was the first to make embalming available to the public and who also wrote the first embalming text (first printing in French) [French]

282

GOOSENECK

Rubber stopper containing two tubes, one to create vacuum or pressure and the other to deliver fluid or achieve aspiration; possibly used in conjunction with a hand pump.

283

RICHARD HARLAN

(1796-1843) An influential person in medical embalming who translated
Gannal’s text into English and promoted embalming for sanitary purposes

284

DR.WILLIAM HARVEY

(1578-1657) An influential person in medical embalming who discovered the circulation of blood in 1628 [British]