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Flashcards in Test 4 Lecture Notes Deck (213):
1

Autolysis (physical or chemical change?)

Chemical change

2

Postmortem caloricity -aka postmortem fever (Physical or chemical change?)

Chemical change

3

Algormortis (Physical or chemical change?)

Physical change

4

Postmortem blood changes (physical or chemical changes?)

-hypostasis (physical change)
-increase in viscosity of blood (physical change)
-hemolysis (chemical change)
-coagulation or clotting (physical change)

5

Change in tissue pH (physical or chemical change?)

Chemical change

6

Rigor mortis A.k.a. cadaveric rigidity (chemical change or physical change?)

Actually a physiochemical change, but if it is between chemical and physical the answer would be chemical change

7

Imbibition (Physical or chemical change?)

Physical change

8

Dehydration or desiccation (physical or chemical change?)

Physical change

9

General decomposition (physical or chemical change?)

Chemical change (All types of general decomp are chemical changes)

10

Postmortem physical changes are brought about by three events:

1) stoppage of blood circulation
2) gravitation of blood to the dependent parts of the body
3) environmental surface evaporation

11

Five postmortem physical changes

1) Algor mortis
2) Hypostasis
3) Livor Mortis
4) dehydration
5) increase in blood viscosity

12

Postmortem chemical changes are a result of

Definite chemical reactions in which new end products and byproducts are formed in the dead human body

13

Five postmortem chemical changes

1) change in pH
2) postmortem stain – hemolysis
3) postmortem caloricity
4) rigor mortis
5) General decomposition

14

10 types of general decomposition

-hydrolysis
-Lipolysis
-proteolysis
-Autolysis
-saccharolysis
-fermentation
-oxidation
-hemolysis
-decay
-putrefaction

15

Algor mortis

The postmortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature

16

The internal organs cool much ______than the surface tissue of the body

Slower

17

Intrinsic factors that govern the rate of Algor mortis

1) corpulence- it takes longer for an obese person too cool to surrounding temperature
2) age-The very old and very young will cool faster and go into Algor mortis much faster than healthy young adults

18

Extrinsic factors that govern the rate of Algor mortis

– Amount of clothing covering the body
– Temperature and humidity of the environment
– Temperature of the patient at death
-cause and manner of death

19

Hypostasis

Can be antemortem and later postmortem-it is the settling of blood and/or fluids to dependent portions of the body

20

Generally the thinner the blood flow, the _________ hypostasis occurs

Faster

21

Medications containing blood thinners _________ hypostasis

Maximize

22

After death, ______% of blood is in the arteries ,
______% of blood is in the veins, and _____% of blood is in the capillaries

5%, 10%, 85%

23

Diseases which increase the antemortem metabolic rate tend to ____________ the rate of Algor mortis

Decrease

24

The rate of cooling will be _______ in cases of sudden death

Slower

25

Exhausting or emaciating diseases will _________ Algor mortis

Accelerate

26

Air currents and low humidity __________ the rate of surface evaporation and speed of heat loss

Increase

27

High humidity and static air _________ surface evaporation And retard heat loss

Decrease

28

Making a pre-embalming analysis of the deceased individual the embalmer examines the effect of four factors of concerns

– General body condition
– Effects of disease on the body
– Effects of drug therapy on the body
– All postmortem chemical and physical changes

29

The settling of blood into dependent tissues of the body will cause smaller vessels and capillaries to ___________ thus allowing arterial fluid to enter with greater ease

Expand

30

The postmortem, intravascular red-blue blood discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood. Can be removed with arterial injection and venous drainage

Liver mortis-aka cadaveric lividity, aka postmortem lividity

31

First stage of Livor mortis (postmortem lividity, cadaveric lividity) is _________in color, the last stage is _________.

Blue-pink, purple

32

Loss of moisture from the body tissues which may occur antemortem and/or postmortem (ex. Antemortem dehydration, agonal dehydration)

Dehydration-desiccation

33

Postmortem physical change occurring during the:
-postmortem interval (before embalming)
-post embalming (after embalming)

Postmortem dehydration

34

The _____ the postmortem interval, the better the results

Shorter

35

A drying of the body or tissue as a result of removal of moisture through the skin and membranes to the surrounding air as a natural process. Will retard decomp because it mitigates bacterial cell metabolism

Postmortem dehydration

36

Three causes of postmortem dehydration that occur prior to embalming (postmortem interval)

1) surface evaporation
2) imbibition
3) gravitation of serum

37

When the air is naturally dry, as in a desert or mausoleum crypt, a rapid and complete _____________ will occur.

Mummification

38

5 examples of Postmortem Dehydration

1) Lips- become hard, crusty, leathery, dark, reddish-brown in color
2) eyelids- hard, brownish in color (leathery)
3) eyeball- cupping, sclera turns tan in color
4) finger tips- hard brownish-red and shriveled
5) skin- loss of luster and elasticity

39

Absorption of fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death resluting in postmortem edema. As surface tissues dehydrate, deeper organs go into edema and swell

Imbibition

40

dehydration of the surface of the body.

Gravitation of Serum

41

Imbibition will co-exist most often in _________ cases where currents of dry air rapidly dehydrate the surface and low temperatures retard blood coagulation and permit gravitation of blood serum and plasma into more dependent areas of the body.

refrigerated

42

Dehydration will bring about surface discoloration ranging from a ________into_______ and finally _____.

yellow, brown, black

43

Dehydrated tissue discoloration cannot be __________

bleached

44

Causes of postmortem dehydration that occur AFTER embalming

1) Chemical dehydration
2) Drainage dehydration
3) environmental surface evaporation
4) Increase in blood viscosity

45

Arterial solution is too strong.
-Use of concentrated arterial/cavity fluid in direct contact with membranes to induce dehydration.
-Regurgitation of cavity fluid up through respiratory tract or cervical vessels

Chemical dehydration

46

Drainage Dehydration

the removal of tissue moisture may occur as a result of too rapid injection and drainage

47

most common cause; concerns with temperature, flow of air and humidity around casketed remains in the viewing room.

Environmental surface evaporation

48

5 results of post embalming dehydration

1) tissue will take on a gray cast; in severe cases, dark gray.
2) Eyes will open
3) lips will part
4) back of hands will shrivel
5) Desiccation marks, red-brown is most noticeable.

49

Three causes of increased viscosity of the blood

1) Imbibition
2) Gravitation
3) Agglutination of formed elements

50

Heat causes

coagulation

51

cause of agglutination of formed elements

pathological agglutination-(result of disease prior to death)- febrile diseases prior to death cause sludge substance (sticky grape jelly) in blood which coat red blood cells, making them stick together in clumps.

52

exceptions of pathological agglutination are:

1) Septicemia
2) Liver Disorders

53

Most ______ cases drain well

jaundice

54

Any condition causing ___________ will also cause agglutination of the blood, thus increasing viscosity

bodily dehydration

55

Left and right common carotid arteries bifurcate into

left and right internal and external carotid arteries

56

The descending abdominal aorta bifurcates into

Left and right common iliac arteries

57

The left and right popliteal arteries bifurcate into

left and right anterior and posterior tibial arteries

58

Left and right brachial arteries bifurcate into

left and right ulnar and radial arteries

59

right brachiocephalic artery bifurcates into

right subclavian and right common carotid arteries

60

diminished coagulability of the blood

Hypinosis

61

Rapidly forming clots

-currant
-sludge
- jelly clot
-cruor

62

clot containing all of the blood elements but having red and white cell separated into distinct layers. classified according to location.

slow forming clot

63

Two types of slow forming clots

-vascular chicken fat clot
-cardiac chicken fat clot

64

The all white fibrin heart clot

few if any red blood cells, look like flesh color rubber bands.

65

Difference between antemortem clots and postmortem clots

-soft consistency, especially the cruor
-elastic and do not completely fill the blood vessel
-never attached to vessel wall
-homogenous as described
-when removed unbroken, they appear as a cast of the vessel in which they were formed

66

self-destruction of cells; decomp of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance

Autolysis

67

Chemical catalysts which are employed by the tissue cells for the digestion and metabolism of food substances during life.

Enzymes

68

Accelerator substances which increase the activity of enzymes

co-enzymes

69

similar to antibodies. They have a marked inhibitory action on certain enzymes and serve to protect the living tissues against their own digestive agents.

Anti-enzymes

70

membrane bound body within the cell containing a microscopic droplet of acid hydrolase. Organelles within a cell containing digestive enzymes.

Lysosomes

71

All bodies in the refrigerator have two things in common

1) all of them will have I.D. tags
2) they will all be covered

72

Self-digestion begins with

The digestion of enzymes

73

The end products of Autolysis

1) amino acids
2) sugars
3) fatty acids
4) glycerol

74

Fermentation

Bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates.

75

Fermentation occurs simultaneously with ___________ and constitutes a major embalming problem

Putrefaction

76

Fermentation is the reduction of carbohydrates into simpler substances, usually ___________ and ____________.

Carbon dioxide and water

77

Bacteria, yeasts, and autolytic enzymes play a key role in

Fermentation and saccharolysis

78

Oxidative bacterial fermentation will always ____________ the fermentation process

Dominate

79

Saccharolysis is similar to

Fermentation

80

Putrefaction is the most unequivocal sign of

Death

81

Foul odors are much less with __________ than with putrefaction

Decay

82

Lipolysis will occur concurrently with other types of

Decomposition

83

One of the earliest postmortem chemical changes is the destructive influence encountered from _____________ which begins to form shortly after death, reaching its peak during rigor mortis

Tissue acidity

84

The source of the acid from tissue acidity (in post mortem changes) is __________________accumulated in the tissues as a result of cell metabolism and the absence of blood circulation to carry the waste material away from the tissue

Carbon dioxide

85

Carbon dioxide + water ------>___________

Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

86

A pH of ____ is where bacteria thrive

8

87

As bodily tissue reaches a pH of 8, ____________ will directly react with __________ causing it to break down into amino acids

Carbonic acid, protein

88

Hydrolysis of protein will begin __________

Putrefaction

89

Cardinal signs of decomposition (COPSA)

-Color
-Odor
-Purge
-Skin (Desquamation)
-Accumulation of gas

90

First external sign of decomposition appears as a small circle over the right Inguinal or iliac region. What color is it?

Yellow green to green

91

First external sign of decomp is the activity of __________ causing visceral gas with a combination of hydrogen sulfide and hemoglobin---results in spreading of green discoloration eventually covering the body

E. Coli

92

Pink-red-purple discoloration of decomp is due to

Hemolysis resulting in extravascular postmortem stain.

93

Dark brown discoloration of decomp accompanied by

Leatherized condition due to postmortem dehydration – example: freezer burn

95

Putrefaction is characterized by a nauseating odor resulting from three things:

-simple amines
-complex amines (ptomines)
- the end products of putrefaction

96

Odor is much less noticeable in _________

Decay

97

Four examples of odor causing gas

1) hydrogen sulfide
2) hydrogen phosphate
3) ammonia
4) mercaptans

98

Formaldehyde is completely neutralized by

Ammonia

99

The postmortem evacuation of any substance from any external orifice of the body. Specifically, the evacuation of the contents of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

Purge

100

Purge may occur through the

Mouth, nose, and/or anus as a result of visceral gas pressure

101

Separation of the epidermis from the dermis as a result of putrefactive softening in the rete mucosum.

Skin slip (Desquamation)

102

The jelly like substance that binds the dermis to the epidermis; has a lot of capillaries

Rete mucosum

103

Two kinds of skin slip

-postmortem: a result of putrefaction
-antemortem: or agonal Desquamation due to conditions existing prior to death

104

Conditions existing prior to death that cause skin slip

-edema: most common, most likely to cause skin slip
-I.V. Needle: infiltration
-old and emaciated w/ unhealthy or degenerative epidermal tissue (diabetes)
-bandages carelessly pulled off by embalmer

105

Gas formed in the intestinal tract due to the activity of intestinal flora. An example is E.Coli, a facultative anaerobe.

Visceral gas

106

Compressed air is introduced to raise the atmospheric pressure to several times normal.

Hyperbaric chamber

107

Exposure to oxygen under conditions of greatly increased pressure usually in a hyperbaric chamber

H.P.O. (High oxygenated pressure)

108

Dr. William Henry Welch

Discovered clostridium perfringen while a researcher at Johns Hopkins University and later became Dean of the Medical School

109

Abdominal edema, fluid build up

Ascites

110

Visceral gas

Gas in the abdomen

111

Both ________ and ___________ are common intestinal flora

E.coli and clostridium perfringen

112

Tissue gas is the same thing as

Postmortem emphysema

113

Formation of gas in the intercellular spaces of the body caused by clostridium perfringen (clostridium welshii)

Tissue gas

114

Tissue gas in its antemortem stage is called

Gas gangrene

115

Embalmer's worst nightmare

Gas gangrene/ tissue gas

116

True/false:
It is impossible to stop the spread of tissue gas in advanced stages

True

117

True/false:
Tissue gas can be carried from one body to another by contaminated instruments .

True

118

Tissue gas prior to the bubble stage. When the gas-filled area is pressed upon, it has a spongy feeling and emits crackling sensation

Crepitation

119

Tissue gas will appear first in the poorly supported tissues like

-scrotum
-neck
-shoulders
-eyelids
-area around sternum

120

Some embalmers have had success containing tissue gas by injecting hypodermically into gas pockets the following chemicals:

-gasonline, kerosene
-high index cavity fluid-50
-San veno (liquid)

121

Hospital life support systems can create

Subcutaneous emphysema

122

Non-pathological condition that has no relation to putrefaction. Looks and feels like tissue gas.

Subcutaneous emphysema

123

The signs of tissue gas and subcutaneous emphysema are similar except for two:

-subcutaneous emphysema won't bubble or blister
-subcutaneous emphysema has no odor of putrefaction

124

Cause of subcutaneous emphysema

The influx of massive amounts of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide into the tissues causing gas formations in intercellular spaces.

125

Two possible events that can lead to subcutaneous emphysema

- punctured lungs as a result of trauma
- massive antemortem dosage of oxygen just prior to death

126

Effects of subcutaneous emphysema on embalming

- remains may turn dark or even black during injection
- severe swelling as in tissue gas
- no danger of early decomp; do not increase strength of fluid
- air may be pressed out or squeezed from tissue by working gas toward an open incision or by aspiration and reaspiration

127

The only positive sign of death

General decomposition

128

Difference between subcutaneous emphysema and postmortem emphysema

Putrefactive odor which is present in the latter

129

The factors that regulate rigor mortis are the same factors that regulate

Decomposition

130

Fatty acids are products of

Lipolysis

131

The break down of lipids and proteins result from the action of

Bacterial enzymes and autolytic enzymes

132

Embalmable with good results

Protein

133

Poor results that accompany embalming amino acids

-swelling
-no firmness
-distortion of features

134

Unembalmable

Amines

135

Simple amines (H.H.A.M.M)

-hydrogen sulfide
-hydrogen phosphide
-ammonia compounds
-mercaptans
-methane

136

Complex amines (ptomines-body poisons) (P.I.N.S.C)

-Putrescine
-Indole
-Neurine
-Skatole
-Cadaverine

137

End products of decomposition (S.H.A.W.N.P.C)

-Sulfuric Acid
-Hydrogen
-Ammonia
-Water
-Nitrogen
-Phosphoric acid
-Carbon dioxide

138

Intrinsic factors governing decomposition

1) age
2) sex
3) corpulence
4) cause and manner of death
5) bacterial and parasitic activity
6) pharmaceutical agents

139

Extrinsic factors governing decomposition

1) air
2) moisture
3) temperature
4) bacterial and parasitic activity
5) pressure due to earth or clothing
6) vermin including maggots, lace, and rats

140

Stillborn infants decompose very slowly because of the absence of

Intestinal flora

141

Infants which have lived long enough to be fed or have breathed will decompose rapidly because of

An abundance of intestinal flora

142

An aged person, because of a lack of______________ and dehydration, will generally decompose at a much slower rate

Moisture

143

A middle aged, so called healthy person with A high moisture content and a high quality of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract will usually decompose

Rapidly

144

Certain diseases and conditions common to one sex or the other may have a marked influence on the rate of

Putrefaction

145

A higher moisture content and greater amount of ____________ in the female usually brings on putrefaction at a much greater rate.

Subcutaneous fat

146

Postpartum Hemorrhage, or______________ May also cause a rapid onset of putrefaction

Death in childbirth

147

Obese people decompose more__________ than thin ones, largely because of the higher moisture content and the greater retention of body heat

Rapidly

148

After death, ___________________ encouraged putrefaction

Postmortem caloricity

149

Moisture is essential for

Bacterial growth

150

Putrefaction is delayed when the tissues are

Dehydrated

151

Optimum temperature for the growth of bacteria causing decomposition is

98.6

152

A rapid onset of______________Will slow down the putrefactive process

Algor mortis

153

If the amount of organisms accumulated with in the body at the time of death is high it will_________ The putrefactive process

Hasten

154

A free access of air accelerates decomposition get for two reasons

1) additional airborne bacteria are carried to the body and could enter through various openings, wounds, etc.
2) Decay would be rapid because the organisms would be aerobic

155

Caspers dictum

All things being equal, a body will decompose as much in one week lying on the ground as it would into weeks submerged in water, and as much as in eight weeks buried in the ground.

156

Decay is accelerated when there is a free access to warm humid air or a high___________environment

Moisture

157

One of the most important factors affecting bacterial growth

Temperature

158

Temperatures for bacterial growth

Optimum: 98°F to 100°F or body temperature
Minimum: 32°F
Maximum: 120°F (which stops most decomposition)

159

Order of decomposition of body compounds

-carbohydrates
-proteins
-fats
-firm protein – connective tissue
-hard protein – cartilage
-bone

160

Order of decomposition of the organs

-infantile brain
-lining of the larynx and trachea
-stomach
-intestines
-spleen
-mesentery and omentum
-liver
-adult brain
-Heart
-lungs
- kidneys
- urinary bladder
-esophagus
-pancreas
-diaphragm
-blood vessels – (mostly large)
-non-pregnant uterus

161

Containing all of the blood elements in a homogenous mass. Bright red in color, similar to one taken from a living person

Rapidly forming clot

162

Containing all of the blood elements but having red and white cells separated into distinct layers. Classified according to location

Slow forming clot

163

Types of slow forming clots

-vascular chicken fat clot
-cardiac chicken fat clot

164

Synonymous with mummification; one of the basic necessities for bacterial growth, water, has been eliminated from the body.

Permanent preservation

165

Environment for permanent preservation to take place

Hot dry desert or cold, mountainous regions with perma frost

166

Characteristics of a wet or dry floater

-adipose tissue formation
-facial features swollen beyond recognition
- intense odor of putrefaction
- protruding eyes and tongue
- massive skin slip (Desquamation)
- blue-black streaked with red in color (marbleized)
-purge from all orifices
- hair, fingernails, and toe nails have dropped off or are loose
-intense odor of ammonia

167

Terms associated with decomposition

-maceration
-mummification
-deamination
-oxidative decarboxylation
-saponification

168

Moistening or softening of any tissue decomposing in a liquid medium. Ex: a fetus dies in the uterus and remains enclosed in the amniotic sac

Maceration

169

Extreme or complete dehydration of body so as to form a dry, brown, hard structure which is light in weight and resistant to decomposition

Mummification

170

Two-step reaction involving the removal of the amino groups from amino acids

Deamination

171

With the help of oxygen, atoms of carbon and oxygen are pulled off the molecular structure. Reaction is associated with decay

Oxidative decarboxylation

172

Any substance altering the velocity of a chemical change.

Catalyst

173

The enzymes secreted by the tissue cells are called

Autolytic enzymes

174

Chronological order of putrefaction at 70 degrees F in air

- 1-3 days: cupping of the eyeball, greenish discoloration over the abdominal area, postmortem stain, dehydrated lips and eyelids
- 3-5 days: purge, green discoloration spreading over whole body, visceral gas and some tissue gas, odor
- 8-10 days: tissue gas present in all parts of the body, massive skin slip, body swollen, starting to turn dark
- 14-20 days: bubbles and blisters over the body, mottled red, green and brown. Intense odor of putrefaction, nails and hair loose, eyes and tongue bulging, recognition of features difficult.
- 1-6 months: thoracic and abdominal cavities may burst open, body liquification and gases escaping; feature recognition is impossible,bones separating from joints.

175

Change in body pH

7.4-7.0--> 1st stage flaccidity
7.0-6.0 & 6.0-7.0--> stage of rigor
7.0-7.4---> 2nd stage flaccidity

176

Most embalming fluids have a slightly _________pH

Alkaline

177

A group of chemicals called ________ are used to control embalming fluid pH and tissue pH

Buffers

178

The agent that results in coagulation of muscle joints in rigor mortis

Sarcolactic acid

179

Formula for rigor mortis

In death, absence of oxygen will cause glycogen to form and release pyruvic acid, which will break down to form sarcolactic acid. Sarcolactic acid will combine with muscle juices causing rigor mortis

180

Two definite and somewhat separate actions of sarcolactic acid in the muscle tissue

- coagulates soluble muscle juices to form insoluble myosin
- causes a swelling of the muscle cell colloid which may be so great as to destroy the structure of the muscle cells.

181

Minimum temperature for rigor mortis

32 degrees F

182

Optimum temperature for rigor mortis

98-100 degrees F

183

Maximum temperature for rigor mortis

120 degrees F

184

The extent of physical activity before death will affect the production of

Sarcolactic acid

185

Rigor mortis is ________ by heat and _______ by cold

Accelerated, retarded

186

Will cause early onset of post mortem caloricity

Febrile disease

187

Females go into rigor mortis _________ than males

Faster

188

Conditions affecting onset, duration and temperature of rigor mortis

1) age
2) gender
3) cause and manner of death
4) condition of the muscles

189

Characteristics of rigor mortis

1) shortened
2) stiffened
3) acid in reaction
4) loss of sensitivity to stimuli

190

Detailed outline of influence of rigor mortis on embalming

A) the acidity of the tissue during rigor mortis retards bacterial growth
B) limits arterial fluid distribution because of the force of contraction exerted on vessel walls.
C) by giving a false impression of fluid reaction, the embalmer becomes confused as to whether the tissues are really firming or not
D) destroys the ability of tissue to coagulate on contact with HCHO. Also weakens fluid strength when acid unites with HCHO
E) distortion of facial features, hands and arms if rigor mortis is not relieved immediately. ( remains will swell during injection)

190

Between death and putrefaction, the muscle tissue of the body will pass through three distinct stages of rigor mortis:

1) primary flaccidity
2) the stage of rigidity
3)secondary flaccidity

191

Primary flaccidity

-muscles are soft and relaxed and will still react to stimuli
-as cellular death increases, muscles will become rigid
-pH goes from alkaline to neutral to slightly acidic

192

The stage of rigidity ( rigor mortis)

-cells are all dead
-muscles no longer react to stimuli
-muscles and joints are firmly contracted and rigid
-pH goes from mildly acid to strongly acid to mildly acid

193

Secondary flaccidity

- after a variable period of time, rigidity disappears
- muscles are again in a state of relaxation
-all power of contraction is lost forever
- pH goes from mildly acid, to neutral, to alkaline, to strongly alkaline

194

Maximum rigidity

6.5 pH

195

Bacterial decomposition will be retarded in _____________ because bacteria will not grow in an acid medium.

Stage 2 (rigor mortis)

196

The best embalming results will occur during

The early stage of primary flaccidity

197

Arterial fluid mixed with water in the embalming machine

Primary dilution

198

Arterial fluid solution uniting with bodily fluids and tissues in the body

Secondary dilution

199

Conditions often mistaken for rigor mortis

-catalepsy
-cold stiffening
-heat stiffening

200

When exposed to temperatures near or below freezing, the body tissues become firm and rigid. Extreme coldness of the body indicates the cause of rigidity

Cold stiffening

201

There is a more or less permanent coagulation and stiffening as a result of exposure to very high temperatures, as in burning or scalding. Will persist until the muscles undergo softening during putrefaction.

Heat stiffening

202

Prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscles into the rigidity of death. It will disappear naturally as does rigor mortis over a period of time.

Cadaveric spasm aka instantaneous rigor mortis

203

Examples of cadaveric spasm

- soldier killed in combat--grasping rifle
- automobile accident--clutching steering wheel
- suicide-- clutching pistol
- murder-- victim aware-fear
- drowning--clutching grass, weeds
- falling off cliff--clutching for branches
-sports
-downhill skiing accident--clutching poles

204

Associated with cadaveric spasm, over production of sarcolactic acid under duress.

Death grip

205

Order of what happens to the blood after death

1) hypostasis
2) Livor mortis
3) hemolysis
4) postmortem stain

206

__________will always occur before hemolysis

Hypostasis

207

Will occur when formalin solutions contact trapped heme in surface tissues during postmortem stain.

Formaldehyde grey

208

Carbon monoxide poisoning is both __________ and _________

Antemortem and postmortem

209

Will cause hemolysis to occur at a much faster rate, resulting in cherry red color to surface tissue

Carbon monoxide poisoning

210

Postmortem caloricity will always occur before ____________

Algor mortis

211

Putrefaction is more rapid in _________than in salt water

Fresh water

212

Putrefaction is more rapid in ___________water than in running water

Stagnant

213

Factors governing the rate of putrefaction in water

1) temperature
2) nature of the medium
3) movement of fluid