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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (152):
1

Embalming is an _______, not a science

art form

2

The Six Sciences that Embalming is based off of

1) Biological Chemistry, 2) Anatomy, 3) Pathology, 4) Microbiology, 5) Restorative Art, 6) Embalming Technique

3

The illusions--hopefully pleasant ones-- that the embalmer creates that banish traces of death and grief and present the deceased in an attitude of normal restful sleep.

memory picture

4

what does the embalming process accomplish?

1) retard tissue decomposition for a reasonable period of time, but not forever.
2) at best, keeps remains intact for many years, but eventually they will turn to dust
3) serve the living of our time, not create museum specimens
4) clean process of oxidation and dissolutions of the remains in to dust by eliminating the putrefactive or rotting stage
5) Embalming preservation is only temporary. For a mortician to tell a family that embalming guarantees preservation forever is a fraud.

5

Airtight/watertight outside enclosures will accomplish protection against moisture and air which carry ______ bacteria that cause decay

aerobic

6

Aerobic bacteria thrive in presence of

oxygen

7

airtight/watertight outside enclosures will NOT accomplish protection against _______ bacteria that may cause embalmed remains to go into putrefaction.

anaerobic

8

deliberate deception for unfair or unlawful gain

Fraud

9

The unembalmed body tissues are filled with ____________ which are very susceptible to decomp

Soluble Albumins

10

Properly embalming turns soluble albumins into ___________

Insoluble albuminoids

11

How is the temporary embalming process accomplished?

1) through saturation of body tissues w/ preservative fluids which act as a vector or carrier of gases that enter tissue cell proteins
2) It is the gas that is liberated from these fluids that causes chemical fixation of tissue cell proteins
3) process in which protein is altered so that it is no longer a suitable medium for bacterial growth
4) Degree or length of preservation will depend on two related factors : the degree of tissue saturation, and the degree of control of bacteria growth.

12

process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce presence and growth of microorganisms to temporarily inhibit organic decomp and to restore an acceptable appearnance

Embalming

13

Four Classifications of Embalming

1) Cavity Embalming
2) Hypodermic Embalming
3) Surface Embalming
4) Vascular (Arterial) Embalming

14

Two kinds of embalming

1) Cavity Embalming
2) Vascular (Arterial) Embalming

15

Two kinds of Supplemental Embalming

1) Hypodermic Embalming
2) Surface Embalming

16

Direct treatment--other than vascular embalming--of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and then injection of chemicals using a trocar

Cavity embalming

17

Use of vascular systems of the body for preservation, disinfection and restoration; usually accomplished by injection of embalming solutions into arteries and drainage from the veins.

Vascular (arterial) embalming

18

Injection of embalming chemicals directly into tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or a trocar

Hypodermic embalming

19

Kubler Ross's five stages of dying

1) denial
2) anger
3) bargaining
4) depression
5) acceptance

20

to maintain highest moral standards

1) keep body covered as practical. Clean white sheet
2) take no liberties whatsoever
3) Guard against loose talk and remarks
4) repeat nothing outside of preparation room
5) disclosed no confidential facts as to conditions, age, deformities or diseases causing death

21

Disposition of human remains reflected 19th century laws based on sanitation and moral codes

1) that a dead human body not endanger the health and well-being of the general public
2) that such a dead human body not cause a public nuisance
3) that there will not be seepage, leakage or the escape of noxious odors and gas while transporting a dead human body
4) that such a dead human body be transported and disposed of in a morally dignified manner according to the wishes of the person holding the primary right of disposition

22

Why must the funeral practitioner respect the dead?

1) The deceased can no longer demand it themselves
2) for the sake of the profession; if anyone related to funeral service; mortician, crematory operator, cemetery employee etc. will reflect negatively on the entire profession
3)The golden rule; treat the deceased how you want your loved one treated

23

What is the purpose of embalming?

1) sanitation and disinfection; the destruction of most microbes and their ability to reproduce
2) temporary preservation; to allow the family time to gather, have an open casket visitation, and funeral
3) memory picture; most people agree that an embalmed body appears nicer than an unembalmed body

24

Who has the primary rate of disposition of the deceased in Maryland? In order..

1) spouse
2) adult children, Majority Rules
3) parents
4) adult siblings, majority rules

25

Postmortem changes of the eye

- clouding of the cornea
- loss of luster of the conjunctiva
- "cupping" of the eyeball
- pupil dilation
- no muscle response to light

26

Three types of disinfection

1) primary disinfection: carried out prior to embalming
2) concurrent disinfection: practices carried out during embalming process
3) terminal disinfection: institution of disinfection and decontamination measured after the preparation of remains

27

Stages of death

1) Agonal Period: period immediately before somatic death
2) Clinical Death: phase of somatic death lasting from 5-6 minutes during which life may be restored
3) Brain Death
4) Biological Death: death of the individual cells of the body
5) Somatic Death: death of the organism as a whole.

28

Types of tissue and how long they live after clinical death

1) brain and nervous system cells: 5-6 minutes
2) muscle cells: 3 hours
3) cornea: 6 hours
4) Blood cells: 6 hours

29

Early signs of death

1) cessation of circulation
2) cessation of respiration
3) pallor of the skin
4) complete muscular relaxation
5) contact flattening and or pallor of the tissues in direct contact with an object

30

Autolysis

Self digestion by its own enzymes (acid hydrolysis)

31

Bacterial putrefaction

The destruction of the body by anaerobic bacteria

32

Fermentation

Breakdown of carbohydrates

33

Oxidation

Decomposition of the body in oxygen

34

Hydrolysis

Decomposition of the body by water or liquids (carbonic acid)

35

Bacterial decay

Decomposition of the body by aerobic bacteria

36

Saccharolysis

Breakdown of bodily sugars

37

Hemolysis

Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin

38

Proteolysis

Destruction of proteins

39

Lipolysis

Destruction of lipids

40

Chemically injecting disinfectant into the blood vascular system followed by direct treatment of the entire viscera contained in the body cavities

Legal definition of embalming

41

Primary right of disposition – (PRD) in order

-spouse or domestic partner
-adult children (majority)
-parents (both)
-siblings (majority)

42

Three primary objectives of contemporary embalming

1) sanitation and disinfection
2) temporary preservation
3) restoration

43

Identification makes sense professionally, practically illegally for the following reasons

1) certifies that this is the right person beyond any doubt
2) underscores the professional responsibilities we assume in providing disposition
3) stresses the irreversibility of the cremation process
4) facilitates the process of grieving
5) serves as a preventative mental health measure for the bereaved

44

Line of Eye closure

Inferior 1/3, superior 2/3

45

Refrigeration of the body must be at_______ degrees for a funeral home and_______ degrees for a cremation

44, 40

46

Procurement

Taking organs from the deceased

47

Bodies must be embalmed with in 48 hours of

The time of death

48

Maryland requires_______hours to designate the body as abandoned

72

49

Personal environmental hygiene

Sanitization

50

After death the body and its immediate environment are

Unsanitary

51

Purpose of sanitation and disinfection

1) protect the public
2) protect the operator
3) create a clean, sanitary body for transportation and funeralization
4) protect the environment

52

Proper disposition of clothing

1) launder and return to family
2) destroy after proper authorization

53

Minimum parking lot size for a funeral home should be

25 parking spaces per visitation room

54

Minimum size of visitation room

300 sq ft

55

Minimum size of embalming room

120 sq ft

56

The father of microbiology, discovered the existence of microorganisms

Anthony Van Leewenhoek

57

Observed the association between microorganisms disease and decomposition

Louis Pasteur

58

Nontoxic disinfectant suitable for use on animal tissue

Antiseptic

59

Freedom from infection and any form of life – sterility

Asepsis

60

An Agonal bacterial invasion of the body, usually by the putrefactive bacteria, usually confined to the colon, migrating into the blood vascular and skeleton system

Bacteremia

61

Destructive to bacteria

Bactericidal

62

Destruction of bacteria by action of certain chemical substances

Bacteriolysis

63

Agent that has the ability to inhibit or retard bacterial growth; no destruction of viability of the microorganism is implied

Bacteriostatic agent

64

Removal of infectious agents by scrubbing and washing, as with hot water, soap, or suitable detergent

Cleaning

65

An agent, usually chemical, apply to inanimate objects or services for the purpose of destroying disease causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores

Disinfectant

66

The destruction and or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body

Disinfection

67

An agent, usually chemical, applied either to inanimate objects or surfaces, or living tissues for the purpose of destroying disease causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores

Germicide

68

An agent, usually chemical, that possesses disinfecting properties when applied to a precleaned object or surface

Sanitizer

69

A process that renders a substance free of all microorganisms

Sterilization

70

Formulated by the action of pure phenol on pure cultures of bacillus typhosus or other similar bacteria. The relative germicidal value of other disinfectants is determined by comparing their germ killing power with that of phenol under identical conditions

Phenol coefficient

71

The phenol coefficient is

1.0

72

phenol
-cresol
-Lysol
-formalin
-chlorine gas
-chlorinated lime
-sodium hypochlorate
-ethyl alcohol
-bichloride or Mercury
-gluteraldehyde
-stabilized hydrogen peroxide
-iodophors
-iodine
-Quaternary Ammonum compounds

Disinfectants

73

The process in which a gaseous agent is used to destroy rodents and insects

Fumigation

74

Common fumigants

-Hydrogen cyanide
-sulfur dioxide
-HCHO gas (formaldehyde gas)

75

Common larvacides

-malathion
-diazinon
-chlordane

76

A chemical agent capable of destroying saprophytic or pathogenic fungi such as mold

Fungicide

77

A poor, almost useless fungicidal agent

Formaldehyde

78

A very good fungicidal agent

Phenol

79

Most common troublesome molds that the embalmer must face

-mucor
-aspergillis
-penicillium

80

Fungicides most commonly used by embalmers

-carbolated Vaseline
-paradichlorobenzene (phenol)

81

Substance able to destroy lice

Pediculicide

82

An agent destructive to adult forms of insect life; same chemicals as Larvicide

Pesticide or insecticide

83

The metabolic entity of growth, reproduction and locomotion

Life

84

Tripod of life

Heart, lungs, brain

85

Irreversible, total cessation of metabolic activity

Death

86

Anything ending in -ENE is a

Phenol

87

Anything ending in an -OL is

Alcohol

88

Anything ending in an -AL is

Formaldehyde

89

Death of certain groups of cells and their subsequent replacement by new cells in the normal course of bodily activities; physiological

Necrobiosis

90

The pathological death of certain cells or tissues of a still living body

Necrosis

91

Example of necrosis

gangrene

92

Antemortem cellular death

Gangrene

93

Gas gangrene=

Life

94

Tissue Gas aka post mortem emphysema=

Death

95

Gas gangrene is caused by

Clostridium perfringen (bacillus welshii)

96

The founder of clostridium perfringen

William Henry Welsh

97

Result of a blockage or a degenerative condition of the arteries aka ischemic necrosis

Dry gangrene

98

The result of a blockage or a degenerative condition of the veins

Wet gangrene

99

_____________ is used on bodies with dry gangrene

Embalming powder

100

____________ is used on bodies with wet gangrene

Hardening compound

101

Subcutaneous emphysema

Excess air under the skin; no bacteria involved

102

The antemortem development of a bed sore into necrotic tissue which may become fatal

Decubitus ulcer

103

The period just prior to death, also called the dying period or the Agonal period

Moribund

104

A noise made by a moribund person which is caused by air passing through a residue of mucus in the trachea and the posterior oral cavity.

Death rattle

105

Semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death; it is caused by the death of the nervous system.

Death struggle

106

Aka cadaveric spasm, the last act in life is preserved in death (anything involving sudden or over production of sarcolactic acid)

Instantaneous rigor mortis

107

The condition in which the manifestations of life are feebily maintained

Apparent death

108

Temporary condition of apparent death with cessation of respiration

Suspended animation

109

Condition in which there is a waxy rigidity of the body and the vital phenomena of life are feebily maintained. Body does not respond to stimuli

Catalepsy

110

The body of a deceased human being including the cremated remains

Human remains

111

Dead human body preserved and especially used for dissection (medical)

Cadaver

112

Slang term for "cremated remains", those elements remaining following the cremation of the body.

Cremains

113

The study of death

Thanatology

114

Death of the whole organism. Specifically death of the heart, brain and lungs.

Somatic death

115

You will find:
-Heart contracted and empty vascular breakdown with probable ruptured aneurysm,
-no blood discolorations on the surface indicating massive internal hemorrhage .

Syncope by anemia

116

You will find:
-blood stopped in its course and found to be plentiful in. Oth arteries and veins
-numerous Agonal clots
-vascular system still intact

Syncope by asthenia

117

You will find:
- blood in arteries of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges
- distention and discoloration of eyelids
- possible gas in the cranium due to putrefaction
- rapid migration of organisms causing early decomposition

Coma

118

To embalm a coma case, you use

The restricted cervical method

119

Bulging eyeballs mean

Cranial decomposition

120

Head freeze aka

Instant tissue fixation

121

In these two cases you must NEVER aspirate the brain

1) meningitis
2) Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease

122

You will find:
-main arteries and veins empty
-cyanosis of body surface
-blood discoloration (dark purple except for drowning and carbon monoxide poison cases)

Asphyxia

123

Regardless of the basic cause of somatic death, the final cause of death is always

Oxygen starvation

124

Cellular death is also known as

Molecular death

125

Postmortem cellular death will alway follow

Somatic death

126

Later signs of death occurring during the first several hours

-algor mortis-post mortem cooling
-rigor mortis- post mortem stiffening
-livor mortis (post mortem lividity, cadaveric lividity)
-general decomposition- the only positive sign of death

127

Those manifestations of death by which we may recognize its presence in the body

Signs of death

128

Signs of death

1) cessation of respiration
2) cessation of circulation

129

The movement of blood from the heart and arteries into the capillaries and veins which occurs at the moment of death

Articulo mortis

130

The first stage of rigor mortis, happens immediately after death

Primary flaccidity

131

"Expression of, look of death" – these are facial changes that are associated with death, such as the expression of slackness in the eyes, the mouth opens and the jaw drops back. The lips are dry and shrunken and the facial lines are accentuated

Facies-hypocratica

132

Post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding environmental temperature

Algor mortis

133

Aka cadaveric rigidity, postmortem temporary stiffening of the voluntary and involuntary muscles as a result of chemical changes in the dead body

Rigor mortis

134

The postmortem gravitation of the blood into all the dependent areas of the body

Livor Mortis

135

Aka laking, postmortem condition in which congested blood undergoes a change in which the hemoglobin separates from the red blood cells and passes through the capillary walls into the tissues

Postmortem stain (hemolysis)

136

How does the embalmer tell the difference between postmortem stain in the Livor mortis?

By pressing your finger on the discolored area. If the area lightens in intensity it is livor mortis. If there is no change it is postmortem stain

137

Livor mortis Will always occur before

Postmortem stain

138

Agonal state

The period immediately preceding death.

139

Bodily changes that occur in three overlapping stages

1) antemortem
2) Agonal
3) postmortem

140

The agonal state has been determined to have six changes

1) thermal change
2) blood change
3) moisture change
4) bacterial translocation
5) gas in tissue
6) therapeutic agents

141

Agonal algor

Marked by a decrease in recorded body temperature; noted in senile patients

142

The cause of body temperature to drop is

-A progressive reduction in the rate of metabolism
-A general slowing of the blood circulation

143

Agonal fever

Marked by an increase of recorded body temperature

144

The cause of the temperature rise is

-highly infectious diseases
-poisons and toxemia
-Progressive increase in the rate of bacterial and/or chemical action in the tissues

145

Agonal hypostasis

Settling of blood to the Dependant parts of the body just prior to death

146

The settling out of blood cells, particularly the white corpuscles. The result is the formation of long, tough, laminated clots

Agonal coagulation

147

Out pouring of lymph into the peritoneal cavity

Agonal exudation

148

The escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location, caused by prolonged venous and capillary congestion

Agonal edema

149

Bacterial infiltration and growth from the intestinal tract to the vascular and skeletal systems causing capillary permeability changes. It has been proven that the anaerobic spore forming bacilli have reached the chambers of the heart from the colon with in an hour of death

Bacterial translocation (Agonal bacteremia)

150

The crackling sensation produced when gases trapped in tissue are palpated. Common to both subcutaneous emphysema and gas gangrene.

Crepitation

151

Any of a variety of substances both natural and synthetic that inhibit growth of or destroy microorganisms

Antibiotics

152

A nerve or drug which dilates the blood vessels actually causing complete relaxation of the blood vessels

Vasodilator