What conference first agreed principles for regulation and between what years did it take place?
Paris conference of 1910-1918
What is ICAN and when was it formed?
International Commission for Air Navigation 1919 38 states ratified 43 articles
What gave rise to the supplementary agreements regarding Civil aviation and when did it occur?
Chicago convention 1944 with 52 states
What supplementary agreements did the Chicago convention come up with?
-International Air Services Transit Agreement Non commercial rights to transit airspace, established the first two freedoms of the air. -International Air Transport Agreement Established the other three freedoms of the air regarding carriage of passengers mail and cargo
What is the first freedom of the air?
The privelege to overfly without landing
What is the second freedom of the air?
The privelege to land for non-commercial reasons.
What is the third freedom of the air?
The privelege to put down passengers, mail and cargo taken on in the territory of registration of the aircraft.
What is the fourth freedom of the air?
The privelege to take on passengers, mail and cargo bound for the territory of registration of the aircraft.
What is the fifth freedom of the air?
The privilege to take on passengers, mail and cargo destined for the territory of any other contracting state and to put down passengers, mail and cargo coming from any such territory.
Essentially allowing you to pick up and put down anywhere outside the state of registration.
What is cabotage?
A state has the right to refuse permission to aircraft of another contracting state to take on passengers, mail and cargo inside its terriroty for renumeration or hire destined for another point within its territory. Basically a country can refuse the right for another to pick up pax mail and cargo at one point and fly it internally to another airport within the first countries territory (point to point internal flights).
Each contracting state agrees not to allow another states aircraft to conduct such flights exclusively. Either everyone is allowed to do these internal point to point flights or nobody can.
When was ICAO formed?
April 4th 1947
What are the aims and objectives of ICAO?
- Safe and orderly growth of int. Civil Aviation world wide
- A/C design for peaceful purposes
- Develop Airways, airports, Nav facilities, for int. Civil Aviation
- Promote safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport
- Prevent waste caused by unreasonable competition
- Ensure rights are respected and every state has right to operate int. airlines
- Avoid discrimination between states
- Promote flight safety
- Promote all aspects of Civil Aeronautics
What is the structure of ICAO?
52 member states, overall authority
The Council 6 Committees
36 states, elected by assembly Appointed by & responsible to
to the council
Air Navigation Commission
11 technical divisions
What is the ANC?
Air Navigation Commission
Commission underneath the Committees with 11 technical committees of its own.
What are the 11 technical committees of the ANC?
AGA Aerodromes, Air routes, Ground Aids
AIG Accident investigation
AIS Aeronutical Information Service
COM Aeronautical Comms
MAP Aeronautical Charts
OPS Operation of A/C
SAR Search & Rescue
PEL Personnel Licensing
RAC Rules of the air and ATC
Who publishes SARPS and where are they written?
SARPS are written by the technical divisions and are written into the Annexes
What do SARPS cover?
They cover all technical and operational aspects of international civil aviation, such as safety, personnel licencing, operation of aircraft, aerodromes, ATS, accident investigation etc.
How many contracting states are there in ICAO?
What are SARPS?
Standard and Recommended Practices
What are standard practices?
Any specification the uniform application of which is agreed necessary for the safety or regularity of int. civil air navigation.
Differences must be lodged by member states with ICAO.
What are recommended practices?
Any specification the uniform application of which is agreed desirable for the safety or regularity of int air nav.
Differences are not lodged with ICAO.
Where are the SARPS laid down?
in the 19 ICAO annexes
What are the 19 ICAO annexes?
- Personnel Licencing
- Rules of the air
- Met. Services
- Aeronautical charts
- Units of measurement
- Int transport
- Aircraft nationality
- A/C accident and incident investigation
- Environmental Protection
- Safe transport of dangerous goods
- Safety management
Where can member states differences to the SARPS be found?
In the supplements to annexes
What is the content of an Annex?
- Recommended Practices
What is ICAO annex 1?
Used to write the standards relating to licensing of Pilots and controllers.
What is ICAO annex 2?
Rules of the air
Contains only standards
General rules for VFR and IFR flight which apply without exception over sea and land (provided they do not conflict with the rules of the state being overflown).
These are incorporated into MATS pt 1 and ANO in the UK
What is ICAO annex 11?
Air Traffic Services
Contains both standard and recommended practices.
Defines ATS and specifies the worldwide standards and recommended practices applicable in the provision of these services
How are the annexes amended?
ideas and proposals are first discussed at meetings at the assembly, these proposals are then sent to the ANC who then recommends to the council who decide whether to adopt or reject them.
Assembly discusses> ANC recommends> Council decides
How is the relationship between ICAO and the european organisations laid out?