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Flashcards in ATM 02 Deck (135)
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1

In the vicinity of the Aerodrome when may the standard separations be reduced?

the standard separation minima may be reduced in the vicinity of aerodromes if:

a) adequate separation can be provided by the aerodrome controller when each aircraft is continuously visible to this controller; or

b) each aircraft is continuously visible to flight crews of the other aircraft concerned and the pilots thereof report that they can maintain their own separation; or

c) in the case of one aircraft following another, the flight crew of the succeeding aircraft reports that the other aircraft is in sight and separation can be maintained.

2

When can Reduced Runway separation minima be used?

Reduced runway separation minima shall only be applied during the hours of daylight from 30 minutes after local sunrise to 30 minutes before local sunset.

3

How are aircraft categorised with regards to reduced runway separation minima?

Cat 1

-single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less.

Cat 2

-single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of more than 2000 kg but less that 7000 kg; and

-twin-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than 7000 kg.

Cat 3

-All other a/c

4

Can you use reduced runway separation for a departing aircraft behind a landing aircraft?

No

5

What conditions is reduced runway separation subject to?

a) wake turbulence separation minima shall be applied;

b) visibility shall be at least 5 km and the ceiling shall not be lower than 300m (1000 feet);

c) tail wind component shall not exceed 5 kts;  

d) there shall be available means, such as suitable landmarks, to assist the controller in assessing the distances between aircraft. A surface surveillance system that provides the air traffic controller with position information on aircraft may be utilized, provided that approval for operational use of such equipment includes a safety assessment to ensure that all requisite operational and performance requirements are met;  

e) minimum separation continues to exist between two departing aircraft immediately after take-off of the second aircraft;

f) traffic information shall be provided to the flight crew of the succeeding aircraft concerned; 

g) the braking action shall not be adversely affected by runway contaminants such as ice, slush, snow and water.

Must also be during the daytime only

6

What are the reduced runway separation minima for a/c landing after?

1. A succeeding landing Category 1 aircraft may cross the runway threshold when the preceding aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which either:

i) has landed and passed a point at least 600 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without back-tracking; or

ii) is airborne and has passed a point at least 600 m from the threshold of the runway;

2. A succeeding landing Category 2 aircraft may cross the runway threshold when the preceding aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which either:

i) has landed and has passed a point at least 1500 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without back-tracking; or

ii) is airborne and has passed a point at least 1500 m from the threshold of the runway; 

3. A succeeding landing aircraft may cross the runway threshold when a preceding Category 3 aircraft:

i) has landed and has passed a point at least 2400 m from the threshold of the runway, is in motion and will vacate the runway without back-tracking; or

ii) is airborne and has passed a point at least 2400 m from the threshold of the runway;

In any event each runway will have its own minima published in MATS 2 and these are the absolute minimum

7

What are the reduced runway separation minima for a/c departing behind another departure?

1. a Category 1 aircraft may be cleared for take-off when the preceding departing aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which is airborne and has passed a point at least 600 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft;

2. a Category 2 aircraft may be cleared for take-off when the preceding departing aircraft is a Category 1 or 2 aircraft which is airborne and has passed a point at least 1,500 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft; and

3. an aircraft may be cleared for take-off when a preceding departing Category 3 aircraft is airborne and has passed a point at least 2,400 m from the position of the succeeding aircraft.

Note each runway will have its own minima and these are the absolute minimum 

Consideration should be given to increased separation between high performance single-engine aircraft and preceding Category 1 or 2 aircraft.​

8

You are on duty, the runway in use is runway 30R. Surface wind 120 degrees 6 knots. A Boeing 737 has landed and has passed the 2400 metre marker and will shortly vacate the runway. You have an Airbus 320 on final, can you clear it to land?

no due to 5kt tailwind

9

You are on duty during the hours of darkness. The runway in use is runway 30R. A Boeing 737 has landed and has passed the 2400 metre marker and will shortly vacate the runway. You have an Airbus 320 on final, can you clear it to land?

No, can't use reduced runway separation at night or twilight, must be day

10

You are on duty during the daytime, a Category 2 aircraft is airborne and has passed the 1500 metre marker, the next departing aircraft is also a Category 2 aircraft. Can you clear this aircraft for take-off?

yes

11

You are on duty during the daytime. A Boeing 757 (Cat 3) aircraft has departed and has passed the 2400 metre marker. The next departure is a Cessna 172 (Cat 1). Can you clear it for take-off?

yes as long as the CAT 3 is airborne

12

You are on duty during the daytime. The visibility is 3000 metres. A Boeing 737 has landed and passed the 2400 metre marker and will shortly vacate the runway. You have another Boeing 737 on final. Can you clear this aircraft to land?

no, vis needs to be at least 5km

13

You are on duty during the daytime. The visibility is 7Kms and it has been raining heavily for several hours and the braking action reported as poor. A Boeing 737 has landed and passed the 2400 metre marker and will shortly vacate the runway. You have another Boeing 737 on final. Can you clear this aircraft to land?

No, due to weather causing adverse braking action

14

You are on duty during the daytime. A Cessna 172 has landed and has passed the 600 metre marker. The pilot has requested a short backtrack to vacate to the flying club, which you have approved. You have another Cessna 172 on final. Can you clear this aircraft to land?

No, preceding a/c cannot be backtracking 

15

With regards to reduced runway separation what is CAT 1 aircraft?

Cat 1

-single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less.

16

With regards to reduced runway separation what is CAT 2 aircraft?

Cat 2

-single-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of more than 2000 kg but less that 7000 kg; and

-twin-engine propeller aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than 7000 kg.

17

With regards to reduced runway separation what is CAT 3 aircraft?

Cat 3

-All other a/c that are not Cat 1 or 2

18

What are the conditions necessary for a controller to authorise climb or descent in VMC?

  1. The maneouvre is restricted to Class D,E airspace at or below FL100
  2. It is during the hours of daylight
  3. The aircraft is flying in VMC
  4. Pilot climbing or descending agrees to maintain his own sep. from other a/c and maneouvre is agreed by the pilot of the other a/c.
  5. Essential traffic info is given

19

When may reduced seperation in the vicinity of the aerodrome be used?

  • Adequate seperation can be provided by the aerodrome controller when each aircraft is continously visible to this controller, or;
  • Each a/c is continously visible to flight crews of the other a/c concerned and the pilots report they can maintain their own sep, or;
  • In the case of one a/c following another, the flight crew of the succeeding a/c reports that the other a/c is in sight and sep can be maintained.

20

When can clearance for an IFR a/c to perform a visual approach happen?

  1. When requested by the flight crew
  2. Initiated by the controller

21

What are the conditions for an IFR flight to be cleared to conduct a visual approach?

An IFR flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided the pilot can maintain visual reference to the terrain, and;

  • The reported ceiling is at or above the approved initial approach level for the a/c cleared
    or,
  • The pilot reports at the initial approach level at any time during the instrument approach procedure that the met conditions are such that with reasonable assurance a visual approach and landing can be completed.

22

When shall a controller issue a caution of possible wake turbulence?

  • When both a/c are of a heavy category,or;
  • Preceding a/c is of a heavier wake category than the following, and the distance between them is less than the appropriate wake turbulence minimum.

23

What is transfer of control?

Achieved when a flight operating in accordance with the co-ordination has reached agreed position, level or time.

This can take place at;

  • Agreed reporting point
  • On estimate for FIR boundary
  • At or passing an agreed level
  • Climbing or descending to agreed level-providing standard separation exists

24

Why would transfer of communication take place before transfer of control?

So that instructions which become effective later can be issued.

25

What is co-ordination?

The act of negotation between two or more parties each vested with the authority to make executive decisions appropriate to the task being discharged.

26

What are the stages of coordination?

  1. Notification of the flight in order to prepare for co-ordination as necessary
  2. Coordination of conditions of transfer of control by the transferring ATC unit
  3. Coordination, if necessary, and acceptance of conditions of transfer of control by accepting ATC unit, and
  4. Transfer of control

27

When may an Area control centre transfer an aircraft directly to aerodrome control?

After coordination with the unit providing the approach service if the entire approach will be conducted under VMC.

28

Do controllers that are providing an ATAS coordinate in the same way as those providing a control service?

Yes

29

What are the types of separation?

  • Vertical
  • Horizontal
    -Longitudinal
    -RADAR
    -Lateral

30

What types of lateral separation are there?

Track and geographic