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Flashcards in lec 15 Deck (33):
1

competitive exclusion principle

In reality this does not happen because

- when two species compete directly for the same limiting resources; the more efficient speies will eliminate the other
- no two species have exactly the same requirement

2

the competivie exclusion principle applies to what is called a _______ ______

population niche

3

niche

the sum total of the biotic and abiotic resources an organism uses

4

If the niche's of two or more species are very similar then

one or more species may be driven out of the habitat by competitive exclusion

5

Symbiotic relationship: ____________
The three types are _________

- an interaction between two or more species in which one species lives in close association with another species
- (parasitism, commensalism, mutualsim

6

parasitism

a kind of predator-prey relationship in which one organism, the parasite, derives its food at the expense of its symbiotic associate, the host

7

parasitic relationship

one species(parasite) benefits and the other species (host) is harmed

8

parasites increase their fitness by

using the host for food, habitat, and a means of dispersal

9

Parasatoidism

kill the host

10

Hosts have adaptations that minimize the effect of parasites
immune responses: ________
behavioral defenses: _________

- common in micro-parasitic infection and less common in macro-parastic infection
- may help a host avoid infection

11

commensalism

a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other one is neither harmed nor helped

12

mutalism

is a positive interaction between two species that can be characterized by a number of benefits

13

Examples of mutualism:
Provision of ________
_____ from predators, herbivores and parasites
__________ with a third species
enhanced _________

- essential resouces
- protection
- reduction of competition
- reproduction

14

obligate mutualists

cannot survive or reproduce without the interaction

15

faculative mutualist

can survive and reproduce without eachother

16

Competition is

an interaction between two or more individuals that attempt to use the same resource, such as food, water sunlight or living space

17

Intraspecific competition

competitive interactions between two or more individuals of the same species

18

Interspecific competition

competitive interactions between two different species

19

Exploitation

a type of competition where organisms are competing for the same resource but not directly interacting

20

Interference

a type of competition where there is direct competitive interactions

21

Interspecific interactions

Consumption, preemption, overgrowth, chemical interaction, territorial, encounter

22

consumption competition

individuals of one species inhibit individuals of another by consuming a shared resource

23

pre-emption competition

individuals of one species prevent occupation of an area by individuals of another by getting there first

24

overgrowth competition

individuals of one species grow over individuals of another species, inhibiting access to a resource

25

chemical interaction competition

individuals of one species release growth inhibitors or toxins that inhibit or kill other species

26

Allelopathy in plants

secretion of chemicals that inhibit germination of other species

27

Territorial competition

The behaviour of one species, excludes another species from a specific location that is defended as a territory

28

Encounter competition

non-territorial encounter between individuals of different species that affects one or more of the individuals involved

29

resource partitioning
Based on the fact that over time, natural selection favours

A reduction in competition among coexisting species,
individuals of each species, that avoid or at least reduce competition for limited environmental resources

30

competitive release __________________________
when ________________
or _______

- results in the expansion of species niche
- a competitor is no longer present
- when a species invades a habitat that is free of potential competitors

31

Parasties must __________ and __________ before host death but often cannot ________

leave one host
relocate to another
do this at will

32

To successfully migrate a parasite must

adapt its own life history with the hosts feeding, mating, and social behaviors

33

natural selection favours strains that _____ a host without ________

- infect
- killing