lec 5 Flashcards Preview

Bio 121 > lec 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in lec 5 Deck (20):
1

Archaea have generally

the same shape size and appearance as bacteria and also have similar reporduction (binary fission) makes it difficult to differentiate between archaea and bacteria without study of dna and rna

2

cladistics

an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors

3

plesiomorph

a characterisitc that a toxon has a retained from its ancestor, plesiomorphs are not useful in defining clade, can not use cell membrane seperate groups because all organisms has it, opposoble thumbs you could

4

apomorphy

derived characteristic or innovation that is unique to a group, thus can be used to diagnose a clade

5

cladistics goal

to create a monophyletic taxon (called a clade), that includes all descendants of an inferred ancestor, but no others

6

paraphyletic clade

one that is missing one or more smaller clades

7

polyphyletic group

appears to be related by a characteristic that is not derived but is ancestral

8

protozoa

animal like protists, include parasites

9

algae

plant-like protists

10

Fungal-like protists

lake chitin and are all decomposers

11

plantae

multicellular photoautotrophs,

12

fungi

multicellular and single celled organisms which break down dead organic matter

13

reasons for disagreement around number of kingdoms

1) how different is different enough to warrant your own kingdom
2) some taxonomists are lumpers, some are splitters
3) Human bias (no one wants to study protists)

14

taxon have characteristics in common based on

morphological, physiological, and/or genetic traits

15

animal characteristics

multicellular ingestive heterotrophs and are the only kingdom with muscles(sponges don't have muscles)

16

chordates

have a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits and post-anal tail

17

mammals

mammary glands, hair, 3 ear bones, and differentiated teeth

18

primates

prehensible hands, opposable thumbs, key for branchiation

19

hominids

no tails, ability to walk upright, arms shorter than legs

20

homo

permanent erect posture, large cranium, two-footed gait, opposable thumbs, tool making ability