lecture 1-13-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lecture 1-13-16 Deck (29)
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1

macromolecule made of repeating amino acid subunits; have many functions;
muscle contraction, facilitate, chemical reactions fight infection

proteins

2

building blocks of proteins; 20 different amino acids; all have the same basic core structure; each also has a unique chemical side group

amino acids

3

amino acids are held together by ______

peptide bonds

4

amino acids bond together to form _______

linear chains

5

chain folds into a 3d protein based on the ________of amino acids

sequence

6

instructions to make proteins are encoded by

genes

7

a sequences of DNA that contains the instruction to make at least______________

one protein

8

where are genes found ?

found on chromosomes

9

synthesis of a protein from a gene is called

gene expression

10

antithrombin protein helps prevent

blood clots (thrombosis)

11

antithrombin is only expressed in

liver cells

12

humans have _________ of every gene

two copies of every gene

13

when you inherit genes from your parent its the same thing; different version of the same gene is called

allele

14

alternative versions of the same gene; have different nucleotide sequences; different alleles influence protein function

alleles

15

animals that have been genetically altered are called

transgenic organisms

16

gene must be a _______so human protein is expressed in animal

hybrid

17

isolate gene of interest from human chromosome
insert it into animal embryo

genetically modified animals

18

determine the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein

coding sequence

19

determine when and how much a protein a gene makes it

regulatory senses

20

process of assembling new "hybrid gene"
novel combinations of regulatory and coding sequences
recombinant gene

genetic engineering

21

use needle to inject the recombinant gene into a fertilized single cell goat embryo
transgenic embryo is implanted into mother
embryo grows and inserted gene is replicated and passed on the every cell

making transgenic organisms

22

modified to contain genes for natural pesticides

transgenic crops

23

molecules of messenger RNA nRNA are synthesized from the instructions encoded in genes

transcriptions

24

binds to the regulatory of the genes coding region. the DNA strands unwind, exposing the coding sequence of the gene

RNA polymerase

25

RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a ___________ of mRNA by reading the gene coding sequences

complementary strand

26

mRNA molecules used to assemble the corresponding amino acid sequence of the protein

translation

27

ribosomes are made up of

proteins and RNA

28

ribosomes move along the nRNA "reading" it in groups of 3 _______

nucleotides (codons)

29

transfer RNA carries an amino acid to the mRNA and ribosome by using its ___________ to find a matching mcodon

aniticodon