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1

What did Edersheim (1883) say, with regard to the number of OT messianic prophecies?

456 OT passages refer to the Messiah or Messianic times [According to 558 rabbinic texts (e.g. Talmud, Mishnah, etc.)]

2

Who proposed the following and when: 456 OT passages refer to the Messiah or Messianic times [According to 558 rabbinic texts (e.g. Talmud, Mishnah, etc.)]?

Edersheim (1883)

3

What did J. Barton Payne (1973) say, with regard to the number of OT messianic prophecies?

i. 127 OT passages offer Messianic predictions
ii. 103 are direct

4

Who proposed the following and when: 127 OT passages offer Messianic predictions; 103 are direct?

J. Barton Payne (1973)

5

What did James Smith (1993) say, with regard to the number of OT messianic prophecies?

i. 73 OT passages treated as messianic

6

Who proposed the following and when: 73 OT passages are messianic?

James Smith (1993)

7

What did Walter Kaiser, Jr. (1995) say, with regard to the number of OT messianic prophecies?

i. 65 OT passages offer direct predictions
ii. In OT, of 39 instances of word Messiah, 9 are messianic

8

Who proposed the following and when: 65 OT passages offer direct predictions; in OT, of 39 instances of word Messiah, 9 are messianic?

Walter Kaiser, Jr. (1995)

9

What does Gordon Hugenberger say, with regard to the number of OT messianic prophecies?

Only 2 OT passages (Daniel 9:25, 26) are messianic in that they predict a coming Savior the sense typically understood by Christians.

10

Who proposed the following and when: Only 2 OT passages, both in Daniel 9, are messianic in that they predict a coming Savior the sense typically understood by Christians?

Gordon Hugenberger (Present)

11

What did Anthony Collins (1724) say, with regard to OT messianic prophecies?

No OT prophecy is very convincing in light of historical grammatical exegesis of the text, in terms of messianic prediction (e.g. Isaiah 7 and the virgin birth). Christians just taking things out of context.

12

Who proposed the following and when: No OT prophecy is very convincing in light of historical grammatical exegesis of the text, in terms of messianic prediction (e.g. Isaiah 7 and the virgin birth). Christians just taking things out of context.

Anthony Collins (1724)

13

What did Thomas Sherlock say, with regard to OT messianic prophecies (1732, in response to Anthony Collins)?

1. Agrees with Collins about meaning of original context, but says both original and second or fuller fulfillment (Dual Fulfillment). E.g. 2 Sam 7 (Solomon and Seed of David).

14

Who proposed the following and when: Anthony Collins is correct about requiring the meaning in the original context, but there is also a second or fuller fulfillment (a.k.a. Dual Fulfillment). E.g. 2 Sam 7 (Solomon and Seed of David).

Thomas Sherlock (1732)

15

What are the six critical arguments of James H. Charlesworth? (Longhand)

1.) Not one of the 39 OT occurrences of 'Messiah' in original contexts refer to coming figure whose arrival will coincide with era of salvation.

2.) What is predicted in pre-70 AD texts have nothing to do with Jesus and what he did.

3.) Jesus never proclaimed himself as a messiah and in fact rejected the claim.

4.) NT writings do not elevate Jesus as a type of David.

5.) All other Messianic expressions (Seed of the Woman/Abraham, Servant of the Lord, Son of Man, etc.) are collective in original contexts, not to be understood as individual.

6.) There was no significant Messianic expectation in Jesus's day.

16

What are the six critical arguments of James H. Charlesworth? (Shorthand)

1.) 39 occurrences

2.) Pre-70 AD texts

3.) Rejected claim

4.) Type of David

5.) Collective, not individual

6.) Messianic expectation

17

What does critical scholar JJM Roberts argue (as offered by Charlesworth)?

Not one of the 39 OT occurrences of 'Messiah' in original contexts refer to coming figure whose arrival will coincide with era of salvation.

18

What is Peshar, and what does Becker (1977) say about it?

Peshar is the creative re-interpretation of Scripture. Becker (1977) says the NT uses Peshar, but we must not follow this method ourselves.

19

What did Beecher (1905) say, with regard to OT messianic prophecies?

Distinguishes prediction and promise. Whereas predictive is more specific, promise is broad and may have many fulfillments the authors did not anticipate (e.g. Genesis 3 and the Seed of the Woman).

20

Who proposed the following and when: Distinguishes prediction and promise. Whereas predictive is more specific, promise is broad and may have many fulfillments the authors did not anticipate (e.g. Genesis 3 and the Seed of the Woman).

Beecher (1905)

21

What are the point-by-point responses to the six arguments of Charlesworth?

1.) Kaiser agrees that 30 don't, but he thinks 9 do: 1 Sam 2:10, 35; Psalm 2:2, 20:6, 28:8, 84:9; Hab 3:13; and Daniel 9:25, 26. Hugenberger agrees with Daniel 9:25, 26 only.

2.) Yes, triumphalism language applies to Christ, but his second advent.

3.) Secrecy in the gospel of mark not a denial, but temporary solution to unwanted publicity

4.) NT Wright: gospel of Luke absolute mirror of 1 & 2 Samuel, the story of David, deliberately making parallels

5.) Almost all titles used in both collective and individual senses

6.) Lots of examples of messianic expectation, as from: Josephus, Tacitus, Suetonius, Samaritans, and the many false messiahs mentioned in biblical and extra-biblical literature.

22

What are other possible arguments against the six of Charlesworth?

1.) What Andrew and Philip believed: “We have found the Messiah…one of whom Moses and Prophets wrote.” (Jn 1:41)

2.) According to Jesus, Moses points to him (Jn 5:45).

3.) According to Jesus, OT also predicts sufferings of Messiah in addition to his glory ( Lk 24:25-26)

4.) Paul proved from the Scriptures that Jesus is the Christ

5.) Peter affirmed predictive nature of OT prophecy in 1 Pt 1:10-11

23

What are the so-called "Four Pillars" (Dunn, Sanders) of 2nd Temple Judaism, adduced to argue against the presence of messianic expectation at the time of Jesus?

1.) Exclusive Monotheism
2.) Election (not Calvinistic)
3.) Torah
4.) Temple

24

According to Kaiser, what are the 9 passages referring to the coming Messiah?

1.) 1 Sam 2:10
2.) 1 Sam 2:35
3.) Psalms 2:2
4.) Psalms 20:6
5.) Psalms 28:8
6.) Psalms 84:9
7.) Habakkuk 3:13
8.) Daniel 9:25
9.) Daniel 9:26