Flashcards in Lecture #11 Deck (17)
What are three practical benefits for Christ's coming well after Daniel?
1. Persians: Allowed Jews to go home, but did not require it
2. Greeks: established a lingua franca/trade language
3. Rome: roads - first information super highway
What are the dates at the end of the 133 year-window for when the Messiah had to come?
Startpoint: 63 BC, Pompey conquers Judea and begins the Roman period
Endpoint: 70 AD, destruction of the Temple & Daniel 9:26
What are the 8 lines of evidence for an early date of Daniel?
1.) 8 manuscripts of Daniel from Qumran
2.) High number of MSS of Daniel at Qumran and influence on early apocalyptic literature implies early canonicity
3.) Aramaic of Daniel is "Imperial Aramaic" (c.600-330 BC)
4.) Greek influence is too limited for 2nd BC, consistent with 6th BC
5.) Persian loanwords in Daniel so old misunderstood by LXX
6.) The Hebrew in Dan is like early post-exilic and unlike 2nd BC Hebrew
7.) Inexplicable accuracy of Dan unless it comes from 5th BC (e.g. Belshazzar's reign, dating Jehoiakim)
8.) Inexplicable perspective of Dan unless it comes from the 5th BC (e.g. positive view of Neb and Darius)
Who was Simeon Luzzatto?
Chief rabbi of Venice (1580-1663), who held that Daniel referred to a past historical individual, although not Jesus.
What are the three alternative approaches to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. The "Critical" Approach
2. The Eschatological Approach
3. The Roman Approach [Hugenberger's]
OT sacrifices can be categorized in terms of what three general purposes?
When is the first instance of substitutionary death?
No substitutionary death until Genesis 22 (the ram on Mount Moriah)
What are the three levels of the taxonomical scheme of the system of sacrifice, based on who eats it?
1. If God eats the sacrifice = whole burnt offerings (expressive of consecration)
2. If worshipper eats the sacrifice = peace/fellowship offerings (expressing of communion)
3. If priest eats the sacrifice = sin/purification offerings and guilt/purification offerings (expressive of atonement/propitiation)
What is the "Critical" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Daniel composed ~164 BC
What are the advantages of the "Critical" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Explains perfect accuracy and then total failure
2. Explains Dan’s disproportionate emphasis on the period on Antiochus Epiphanes
What are the disadvantages of the "Critical" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Daniel is radically unlike the pseudepigrapha literature
2. Given fierce nationalism of Israel in this period, how could Daniel celebrate heroes who faithfully serve pagan kings
3. How could daniel be accepted as scripture if its blatant errors concerned the very period which was best known to its readers
4. Daniel's emphasis on Antiochus can more convincingly be explained as an appropriate response to Antiochus' unprecedented threat to the Jewish faith
What is the "Eschatological" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Daniel moves from Antiochus directly to the antichrist because the former prefigures the latter
What are the advantages of the "Eschatological" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Explains the perfect acc of 11:1-39 and total ‘failure’ of the pred of 11:40-45 as applied to Antiochus
2. Supported by “At the time of the end…” in 11:40
3. Comports with Daniel’s earlier linkage between Antiochus (the little horn of Daniel 8) and the AntiChrist (the little horn of Daniel 7)
4. Prepares for a reference to the Resurrection in Daniel 12
What are the disadvantages of the "Eschatological" approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Too much continuity between 11:39 and 11:40 without hint of break
2. Significant details in 11:40-45 are inapplicable to the AntiChrist
3. Unexpected to ignore completely the first advent of Christ
4. The NT perspective: the AntiChrist is already here
What is the "Roman" [Hugenberger] approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
1. Daniel continues on from Antiochus to the Romans, especially Pompey, in the period immediately preceding the coming of the Christ
What are the advantages of the "Roman" [Hugenberger] approach to Daniel 11:40-46?
i. Explains the perfect accuracy
ii. “At the end…”