Flashcards in Lecture #10 Deck (23)
What is the Bifid Structure of Daniel?
1. Daniel 1-6: Historical chapters about events in life of Daniel and his friends [Daniel spoken of in 3rd person (common in ancient world of authors writing about self); each chapter in chronological order]
2. Daniel 7-12: Four visions given to Daniel [Daniel spoken of in 1st person; Daniel 7 jumps back a dozen years to Belshazzar’s first year = 553 BC]
What is the concentric structure of Daniel?
1. 1: Prologue [Hebrew]
2. 2-7: God’s judgment on the Kingdoms of the world [Aramaic]
a. 2(A): Four kingdoms and the Kingdom of God
b. 3(B): Persecution & deliverance [fiery furnace]
c. 4(C): Neb judged
d. 5(C): Belshazzar judged
e. 6(B): Persecution & deliverance [lion’s den]
f. 7(A): Four kingdoms and the Kingdom of God
3. 8-12: God’s judgment on His people [Hebrew]\
a. 8(A): Antiochus prefigures the Little Horn
b. 9(B): The Seventy Weeks
c. 10-12(A): Antiochus and the finial crisis and redemption
What are the two major lessons of Daniel?
1. The inexhaustible *WISDOM OF GOD* and its immeasurable superiority all human wisdom
a. Second Joseph figures who has supernatural wisdom from God
2. The irresistible *SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD* and his control over history, and hence the ultimate triumph of the eternal Kingdom of God over the transient kingdoms of this world, despite present appearances to the contrary
What evidence suggests Neb did not forget his dream?
1. Daniel 2:9, ‘so then, tell me the dream, and I will know that you can interpret it for me,’ – if you can interpret the dream by divine revelation, you can tell what the dream was
2. Daniel 2:10 – "what the king asks is too difficult. No one can reveal but the gods, and they don’t live among men." Amazing admission from these interpreters.
What are four ways in which Daniel is like Joseph?
1. Seed of Abraham
4. Interpretation of Dreams
What are the four kingdoms of Neb's nightmare? Give: part of idol, and corresponding animal, kingdom, and date(s)?
1. Head of gold = Lion, Babylon, 605 BC
2. Chest and arms of silver = Bear, Medo-Persia, 539 BC
3. Belly and thigh of bronze = Leopard, Greece, 336 BC
4. Legs of iron, feet of mixed clay and iron = Robot beast (metal teeth), Rome, 63 BC
What is the 'Critical View' on the identity of the second kingdom of Neb's nightmare?
2nd Kingdom = Media; therefore the 3rd kingdom = Persia, and the 4th = Greece, with the heroes being the Maccabees.
What are the advantages of the 'Critical View' on the identity of the second kingdom of Neb's nightmare?
1. The 4th kingdom is Greece
2. The book of Daniel was composed, then, ~164 BC (based on the assumed transition between history [prophecy ex eventu] up to 11:39 and genuine but failed prophecy starting in 11:40)
What are the DISadvantages of the 'Critical View' on the identity of the second kingdom of Neb's nightmare?
1. Media and Persia were not separate kingdoms from perspective of Daniel
a. Daniel 6:8 – “Now, o king, …in accordance with the laws of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed”
i. If laws are same, kingdom is same; these are just geographical or ethnic terms for the main two components of the empire. You don’t say according to the laws of the Americans and the French.
ii. Cyrus the Persian = Darius the Mede, which was his throne name in Babylon
b. Elsewhere, Daniel views Cyrus as successor to Babylon
c. Parallel to chapter 8
i. Antiochus Epiphanes -the OT antichrist figure.
What passages in Daniel suggest two phases to the 4th kingdom in Neb's dream, thus evidencing the two advents of Christ?
i. Daniel 2:44: (1st Advent)
1. “In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up [=1st advent]…It will crush [=2nd advent] all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever.”
ii. Daniel 2:34-35: (Second Advent)
1. “While you were watching, a rock was cut our [=1st advent], but not by human hands. And then it struck [=2nd advent] the statue on its feet of iron and clay and smashed them…
a. Like David and Goliath!!
What are four ways the 'Son of Man' in Daniel 7:13 is as a Second Adam?
1. The Aramaic expression for “Son of Man” is the standard translation for ‘son of man’ or ‘son of Adam’ (108x in the OT)
2. Allusions to Genesis 1-3
3. As a 2nd Adam, the Son of man is an individual who is representative of his people
4. Issue of suffering
How many and what are the allusions to Genesis 1-3 in Daniel 7?
There are 8 allusions:
1.) Starts with darkness, wind/Spirit, and water chaos
2.) Appearance of various animals
3.) Royal Adam (a godlike humankind) as the crown of creation made to rule over the beasts, but challenged by the serpent
4.) Anthropomorphic theophany
6.) Accompanied by angels
7.) Satan in form of a serpent/beast that talks - speaks against God and oppresses and makes war on the saints
8.) Judgment context (the words and actions of serpent provoke judgment)
What are the 7 lines of evidence that 'the Son of Man' is God in Daniel 7?
1. “like a son of man” (7:13) - If you are like, you are not, but only like.
2. “coming with the clouds of heaven” (7:13) - Original readers would have understood God (cf. Psalm 68; you can tell it’s God because he’s coming with the clouds of heaven)
3. Analogy (if animals = kings, one “like a son of a man” = ?)
4. Prepared for by anthropomorphic description of God in the figure of the Ancient of Days
5. Given divine prerogatives and honor and receives an everlasting kingdom (7:14)
6. Note: The similitudes of 1 Enoch – Messiah, the Chosen One, Righteous One, Son of Man, are equated. In 46, 48, he is worshipped alongside God.
7. Jesus’ use (81x; cf. Mark 14:61-64)
What are the three views of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1.) The "Critical" View [the Hanukkah view]
2.) The "Dispensational" View
3.) The "Traditional" View [M.G. Kline]
What is the "Critical" View [the Hanukkah view] of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
What are the advantages of the "Critical" View [the Hanukkah view] of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. If weeks is weeks of years, the figures add up with mathematical precision
2. Abomination and desolation in 9:26-27 are the same as the abomination that causes desolation in 11:31 and the rebellion that causes desolation: in 8:13
What are the disadvantages of the "Critical" View [the Hanukkah view] of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. Daniel’s “clock” works in a strange fashion
2. The rededication in 164 B was important, but it did not accomplish at least 5/6 goals for the 70 weeks summarized in Daniel 9:24
3. Messiah, the Ruler in 9:25 is the high priest Joshua; Messiah in 9:26 is the high priest Onias; the Rule in 9:26 and the “he” in 9:27 in Antiochus Epiphanes
4. Referring to three different individuals (fatal flaw!)
5. Antiochus did not destroy the city and sanctuary as required by 9:26b
What is the "Dispensational" view of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. 445 BC - ~400 BC; 30AD; Rapture; End of Tribulation
a. Note: Church Age is in a parenthesis
What are the advantages of the "Dispensational" view of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. If the 7s are weeks of years, then numbers add up with remarkable accuracy (which can be improved if the years are ‘prophetical years’ of 360 days each)
2. This approach does greater justice to the six goals of 9:24
3. In keeping with the NT, Dan 9:26 is understood to refer to the death of Christ on the cross, which is followed by the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple in AD 70
What are the disadvantages of the "Dispensational" view of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. Daniel’s clock – has not been ticking for 2000 years since Palm Sunday
2. There is no hint in the text that on should use special ‘prophetic adjusted’ 360-day years
3. On this view, Gabriel did not need to rush! His rushing implies the answer starts right when Daniel started praying
4. “Messiah” and references in 9:24-27 still referring to more than one person! (Christ, Titus, anti-Christ)
5. Troubling the Messiah would be cut off
What is the "Traditional" view [M.G. Kline] of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. Cyrus answered prayer
2. Christ is coming
3. Destruction of Jerusalem and temple
4. 2nd Advent
What are the advantages of the "Traditional" view [M.G. Kline] of Daniel 9:20-27, "the 70 weeks"?
1. Daniel’s clock works in fashion which at first may seem strange
2. Symbolic time is expected because he chooses not to give a unit
3. The starting point of the 70 weeks: the decree of Cyrus (538 BC)
4. Messiah and he all refer to Jesus
5. The most convincing ex of how the 6 blessings are fully realized by the 70 weeks
6. The desolations in 9:26c is that to which Jesus referred
7. Only on this approach do you get the parallelism
8. Confirmation of Daniels 7’s understanding of time, times, and half a time as church age.