Lecture 1: Early Tecnologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1: Early Tecnologies Deck (64):
1

who was the first human to walk on 2 legs?

Turkana boy (homo erectus)

2

describe Uruk (sumerian city)

- built Bureaucracy and army - invented lawyers - first society to produce standardized weapons

3

who built the pyramids?

ppl payed by the pharaoh

it was used as an engineering project to control ppl

  • instead of farmers revolting on seasons of no labor, they hired them to build pyramids
    • mainly done when  nile flooding

4

Egyptians were the first to come up with the theory of astronomy.

False. They only used observation of skies for social control

5

how was "surplus" influential for these new societies?

- Change in mentality from eat as much as you can to conserve as much as you can - without surplus your constantly fighting to survive - surplus enables you to slow down and do other things

6

what were some things that the Sumerians invented?

- irrigation: invented standardized measurement system (for flooding) - labor organization - Ziggurats/Pyramids - Clock/Calendar - writing (clay tablets) - transportation (wheel) - Metallurgy -

7

the wheel was invented by the sumerians. T or F

False. there is no concrete evidence that they invented it

8

what is the 'Mastaba'?

Q image thumb

- built for upper class - underground chambers for pharaohs

9

what is considered the world's first language?

Cuneiform (clay tablets) - later found to be receipts - stamp/seal identifying which individual it belonged to -> used for priests to keep track

10

what year did the sumerians collapse?

1900BC

11

How did the Nile River impact the egyptians and provide them with advantages?

- Used for transportation (wind blew north while current drew south) > they did not need labour to power the boads as a result of these natural forces - provided them with predictable water supply - new laywer of top soil every year -

12

Agriculture emerged in _______

Mesepotamia

13

what was regarded as the first technology?

Oldowan tools = flake tools

14

Sumerian civilization collapsed because of

internal strive/decay

15

why was Egypt more successful (in terms of life expectancy) than the Sumerians?

Geography -> their location was not as harsh with way less flooding. Also, their gropgraphy provided them with fresh top soil. The desert also protected them from enemy invasions

16

In point form, describe the legacy of the sumerians

- wheel* - Plow - writing - government - math - measurement of time - armour/weapons/metalurgy - calendar

17

what was the intended design of the pyramid of GIZA?

  • to build a giant tomb for a pharaoh
  • complex was a cemetery that was not accessible to public
  • goal: protect the body of pharaoh
  •  

18

Imothep was a ... 

Minister

19

who was the first pharaoh to centralize the grainry as money?

Menes 3200 BC

20

Describe the Amorites

Babylonians - moved toward the alphabet - made first medical tests (based on study of birds) - worldivew based on what they see in the sky

21

22

Was Catalhoyuk made by the Sumerians?

No. they are in different locations

23

Catalhoyuk had similar houses to our modern ones. explain

Art work present, private bedrooms, doors, bed for dead bodies

24

what was the relationship b/w the stars and social control?

- there was a relationship b/w flooding and stars - used knowledge to control farmers and peasants - predicting flood and solar eclipses (with relation to paying taxes). Priests used eclipse to scare peasants

25

The greatest technology of all time is A) Physics B) Education C) Astronomy D) Tools

B

26

the date of the prehistoric period is

3200 BC

27

what was the tool the egyptians invented to measure water? describe what it did

Nilometer - stick with notches - priests record amount of water (see trends as years/seasons go by) - controled society because they understood the pattern of the nile river water suply

28

who invented the plow?

Sumerians

29

How did Homo Erectus use tools differently. Was his brain bigger than Lucy?

Flint hand axe -> increase in amount of meat eaten -> able to kill animals bigger brain cuz of more protein injestion

30

the pyramids of GIZA were build over the span of 20 years and by around 40,000 men.

False. 20,000 men

31

what was the first civilization? where were they located?

The sumerians. Located in the fertile crescent. Needed to invent new technologies to adapt to the enviornment they lived in (involved lots of flooding)

32

increase in food supply corelates to building pyramids

True

33

what is this image pointing to? 

Q image thumb

the great ramp theory

34

stone tools made from flint would be produced by

Homo erectus

35

what was considered the 'first town' in 7000 BC?

Catalhoyuk - standard housing and buildings - controlled food surplus - (LECH) designed to preserve heat; buildings close together; weak design so fortress argument weak

36

Describe the Acheulean tool (core tools)

- predetermined patterned design - used flint - carve aroudn core stone, disregard the flake Luzy produced this tool

37

What civilization invented writting?

Sumerians

38

what was the first method of social control?

the patterns of stars

39

what was the first society to develope science?

Greek society

40

Define Technology

it is a system that leads to the creation of predetermined products

41

Lucy (Australopithacus) was the oldest human. T or F

True

42

the Nile river was used by the Sumerians

No, Egyptians

43

what was the year of the domestification of animals?

7500 BC

44

stone tools made from basalt would be produced by 

Austropithicus

45

what is this image pointing to. Define and discuss what its about

Q image thumb

the trap door/grand gallery

  • intended as tomb for pharaoh
  • once workers placed body inside, they were meant to be trapped and die
  • but workers found their own tunnels to escape

46

what process created the allow bronze? what was the year

Smelting (3000 BC) - tin and copper

47

where were the first stone tools made/found. This place is also home to the oldest skeletons on earth

The Great Rift Valley

48

what was the Egyptians system of farming like?

Since they had surplus of water, they had 2 harvests per year

49

this is called a ?

Q image thumb

step pyramid

50

why did egypt change after hyksos took over?

they had diff traditions than egyptians

  • took over and abolished the rule of pharaoh
  • egyptian society never same anymore cuz they felt powerless
  •  

51

the ______ gave us the paradigm of modern cities. A) romans B) Greeks C) Sumerians D) Egyptians

A

52

What is the oldest form of technology?

Stone Tools

53

Recap: 1) what was the first civilization? 2) what was the first city. 3) what was considered the first town?

1) Sumerians 2) Uruk (4000 BC) 3) Catalhoyuk (7000 BC)

54

stone tools made from basalt are associatedwith

oldowan tools

55

what is the greatest invention of them all? why?

The plow (also known as the wooden stick) - first civilizations born because of plow - first technological advice that changed the entire system - from then on, technological changes rapid

56

how was the Ziggurat of UR used?

Used as a temple that was dedicated to god to guard the city

57

what is the biggest pyramid of egypt called ?

Khufu - Great pyramid of Giza

58

was egypt as technologically advanced as we make it seem today?

(lech) NO

  • pyramids they build had no public purpose
  • restricted to upper echalons of society
  • all resources went to building trombs
  • society preocupied with after life
  • religion impacted their worldview/way of dealing with society

59

______ changed everything. It lead to the emergence of the Sumerians

Agriculture

60

how were the blocks made and brought to the pyramid site?

specialists who cut stone

  • acheived high levels of sophistication which we dont have anymore

blocks were pre-manufactured off site

  • near quaries
  • transported by water

61

who were the people who took over the egyptians? 

Hyksos 1700BC

62

what does this image point to? Discuss how they were made. Are they a realistic theory?

Q image thumb

Earth ramp theory

  • compacted sand and grew with pyramid
  • based on evidence and most realistic theory

63

most important animal was the A) Cow B) Pig C) Sheep D) Goat. Why?

Pig - good for pharmeceuticals - used in warfare - smart animals

64

what was something that the Sumerians struggled to understand?

Geography