who was the first human to walk on 2 legs?
Turkana boy (homo erectus)
describe Uruk (sumerian city)
- built Bureaucracy and army - invented lawyers - first society to produce standardized weapons
who built the pyramids?
ppl payed by the pharaoh
- it was used as an engineering project to control ppl
- instead of farmers revolting on seasons of no labor, they hired them to build pyramids
- mainly done when nile flooding
Egyptians were the first to come up with the theory of astronomy.
False. They only used observation of skies for social control
how was "surplus" influential for these new societies?
- Change in mentality from eat as much as you can to conserve as much as you can - without surplus your constantly fighting to survive - surplus enables you to slow down and do other things
what were some things that the Sumerians invented?
- irrigation: invented standardized measurement system (for flooding) - labor organization - Ziggurats/Pyramids - Clock/Calendar - writing (clay tablets) - transportation (wheel) - Metallurgy -
the wheel was invented by the sumerians. T or F
False. there is no concrete evidence that they invented it
what is the 'Mastaba'?
- built for upper class - underground chambers for pharaohs
what is considered the world's first language?
Cuneiform (clay tablets) - later found to be receipts - stamp/seal identifying which individual it belonged to -> used for priests to keep track
what year did the sumerians collapse?
How did the Nile River impact the egyptians and provide them with advantages?
- Used for transportation (wind blew north while current drew south) > they did not need labour to power the boads as a result of these natural forces - provided them with predictable water supply - new laywer of top soil every year -
Agriculture emerged in _______
what was regarded as the first technology?
Oldowan tools = flake tools
Sumerian civilization collapsed because of
why was Egypt more successful (in terms of life expectancy) than the Sumerians?
Geography -> their location was not as harsh with way less flooding. Also, their gropgraphy provided them with fresh top soil. The desert also protected them from enemy invasions
In point form, describe the legacy of the sumerians
- wheel* - Plow - writing - government - math - measurement of time - armour/weapons/metalurgy - calendar
what was the intended design of the pyramid of GIZA?
- to build a giant tomb for a pharaoh
- complex was a cemetery that was not accessible to public
- goal: protect the body of pharaoh
Imothep was a ...
who was the first pharaoh to centralize the grainry as money?
Menes 3200 BC
Describe the Amorites
Babylonians - moved toward the alphabet - made first medical tests (based on study of birds) - worldivew based on what they see in the sky
Was Catalhoyuk made by the Sumerians?
No. they are in different locations
Catalhoyuk had similar houses to our modern ones. explain
Art work present, private bedrooms, doors, bed for dead bodies
what was the relationship b/w the stars and social control?
- there was a relationship b/w flooding and stars - used knowledge to control farmers and peasants - predicting flood and solar eclipses (with relation to paying taxes). Priests used eclipse to scare peasants
The greatest technology of all time is A) Physics B) Education C) Astronomy D) Tools
the date of the prehistoric period is
what was the tool the egyptians invented to measure water? describe what it did
Nilometer - stick with notches - priests record amount of water (see trends as years/seasons go by) - controled society because they understood the pattern of the nile river water suply
who invented the plow?
How did Homo Erectus use tools differently. Was his brain bigger than Lucy?
Flint hand axe -> increase in amount of meat eaten -> able to kill animals bigger brain cuz of more protein injestion
the pyramids of GIZA were build over the span of 20 years and by around 40,000 men.
False. 20,000 men
what was the first civilization? where were they located?
The sumerians. Located in the fertile crescent. Needed to invent new technologies to adapt to the enviornment they lived in (involved lots of flooding)
increase in food supply corelates to building pyramids
what is this image pointing to?
the great ramp theory
stone tools made from flint would be produced by
what was considered the 'first town' in 7000 BC?
Catalhoyuk - standard housing and buildings - controlled food surplus - (LECH) designed to preserve heat; buildings close together; weak design so fortress argument weak
Describe the Acheulean tool (core tools)
- predetermined patterned design - used flint - carve aroudn core stone, disregard the flake Luzy produced this tool
What civilization invented writting?
what was the first method of social control?
the patterns of stars
what was the first society to develope science?
it is a system that leads to the creation of predetermined products
Lucy (Australopithacus) was the oldest human. T or F
the Nile river was used by the Sumerians
what was the year of the domestification of animals?
stone tools made from basalt would be produced by
what is this image pointing to. Define and discuss what its about
the trap door/grand gallery
- intended as tomb for pharaoh
- once workers placed body inside, they were meant to be trapped and die
- but workers found their own tunnels to escape
what process created the allow bronze? what was the year
Smelting (3000 BC) - tin and copper
where were the first stone tools made/found. This place is also home to the oldest skeletons on earth
The Great Rift Valley
what was the Egyptians system of farming like?
Since they had surplus of water, they had 2 harvests per year
this is called a ?
why did egypt change after hyksos took over?
they had diff traditions than egyptians
- took over and abolished the rule of pharaoh
- egyptian society never same anymore cuz they felt powerless
the ______ gave us the paradigm of modern cities. A) romans B) Greeks C) Sumerians D) Egyptians
What is the oldest form of technology?
Recap: 1) what was the first civilization? 2) what was the first city. 3) what was considered the first town?
1) Sumerians 2) Uruk (4000 BC) 3) Catalhoyuk (7000 BC)
stone tools made from basalt are associatedwith
what is the greatest invention of them all? why?
The plow (also known as the wooden stick) - first civilizations born because of plow - first technological advice that changed the entire system - from then on, technological changes rapid
how was the Ziggurat of UR used?
Used as a temple that was dedicated to god to guard the city
what is the biggest pyramid of egypt called ?
Khufu - Great pyramid of Giza
was egypt as technologically advanced as we make it seem today?
- pyramids they build had no public purpose
- restricted to upper echalons of society
- all resources went to building trombs
- society preocupied with after life
- religion impacted their worldview/way of dealing with society
______ changed everything. It lead to the emergence of the Sumerians
how were the blocks made and brought to the pyramid site?
specialists who cut stone
- acheived high levels of sophistication which we dont have anymore
blocks were pre-manufactured off site
- near quaries
- transported by water
who were the people who took over the egyptians?
what does this image point to? Discuss how they were made. Are they a realistic theory?
Earth ramp theory
- compacted sand and grew with pyramid
- based on evidence and most realistic theory
most important animal was the A) Cow B) Pig C) Sheep D) Goat. Why?
Pig - good for pharmeceuticals - used in warfare - smart animals
what was something that the Sumerians struggled to understand?