the study of the structure and management of organizations, their environments, and the actions and interactions of their individual members and groups.
How can behavior in organization be explained?
Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Ecological context
What does OB do?
Looks at attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizational context
Description (Observe, ask question, study documents & other sources)
Evidence-based Management (EBMgt)
To use the latest and best research evidence in managing people and organizations, to improve decision-making quality.
What is personality
Personality is a stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with
Hippocrates determined to bodily humors
Sanguine, Phlegmatic, Melanho, Choleric
Somatotype (body size and shape)
Mesomorph, Ectomorph, Endomorph
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Based on Jung’s theory of personality Sensing ←→ iNtuitive Thinking ←→ Feeling Introvert ←→ Extravert Judging ←→ Perceiving
Type A - Type B
= A combination of emotions and behaviors characterized by
Type A = Ambition, Hostility, Impatience, Constant time pressure
Type B = Relaxation, Low focus on achievement, Ability to take time, Enjoy leisure
The Big Five
Conscientiousness Extraversion Openness Neuroticism Agreeableness
= Positively related to salary, promotions, and job satisfaction in most jobs.
= Inconsistent findings (may depend on type of work). In some studies linked to performance, salary and job level, in others not.
= Not consistently related to job performance; in some instances contribute to lower job performance.
= Negatively related to performance, salary and status.
= Likely to interfere with management potential.
Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge through experience, leadigìng to a lasting change in behavior
→ We cannot learn without feedback
(from external source)
interview protocol designed to reveal new organizational knowledge, which can lead to better alignment between employees’ needs and organizational practices, while cultivating the manager - subordinate interdependence as to improve both relationship and performance.
Introducting positive consequences and desired behavior is repeated
Withdrawing negative consequences and desired behavior is repeated
negative consequences are applied, and the sufferer hasn’t done anything to deserve the punishment
negative consequences are applied, and the punishment bring to wanted outcome
associating a response or behavior with a new stimuli
associating a response or behavior with its consequence
Status Certainty Autonomy Relatedness Fairness
What is motivation?
Effort - How hard do you try?
Persistence – How long can you endure?
Direction – Do you work smart, does it provide benefits?
Goal – Do you have an objective, target to achieve?
the practice of being present at one’s place of work for more hours than is required, especially as a manifestation of insecurity about one’s job.
when employees take annual leave but instead of taking a break from work, they use the time to catch up on their backlog.
Self determination theory (Deci & Ryan)
Motivation come from one’s autonomy competence and relatedness
Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow)
Equity theory (Adams)
Expectancy theory (Vroom)
Goal setting theory (Locke)
Work motivation is influenced by goal difficulty, goal specificity and knowledge of results.
Challenging goals, specific goals (SMART), participation, knowledge of results of past performance.
Inner work-life theory (Kramer & Amabile)
Our behavior and perception at work are influenced by how perceptions, motives, and emotions interact when triggered by daily events.
The fact is we perform better when we experience positive emotions and strong intrinsic motivation.
Provide support, focus on learning not failures, „manage with a human touch“.