the presence of others influences our attitudtes and
• Social facilitation
• Social inhibition
he outcome of interactions in a group • Positive synergy (2+2=5) • Social compensation • Negative synergy (2+2=3) • Social loafing • Process loss
expected behavior or belief that is established (formally / informally) by a group
changing our behavior or belief due to
real or imagined group pressure
changing our behavior in response to a direct command
• Ignoring and excluding an individual from the group.
• It threatens the fundamental need to belong.
• Strong negative link to individual‘s well-being.
• It triggers the same area of the brain that’s active when we feel physical
pain (Williams, 2009). Each time an individual was excluded (even non
intentionally) the brain’s dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lit up.
• Increased job turnover.
• Ostracism (91%) is more common than
harrasment (45%) (O‘Reilly et al., 2014).
• Loosened self-awareness and self-monitoring leading to impulsive and
• Those who have greater levels of self-awareness
show lower rates of anti-normative behavior
because of deindividuation.
• Le Bon suggests that anonymity, suggestibility,
and contagion can turn groups of people into
so-called “psychological crowds.”
• Diffusion of responsibility leads to less
feelings of personal guilt when committing
the process where members learn the values, symbols
and expected behavior in a group.
Six socialization tactics
McGrath‘s model of group tasks
Providing information for the decision
making of the management.
a participatory management
technique that includes the help of employees
in solving problems related to their own jobs.
Total quality management (TQM)
striving for long
term success focusing on customer satisfaction.
Just in time (JIT)
inventory management method of
receiving goods when needed
- They exhibit peak performance on demand.
- Specialized knowledge, skills and contribution.
- Very high need for coordination.
Cross functional /cross organizational, specialized knowledge, combining
a wide range of expertise.
• Solving non conventional and challenging
a unique endeavour to complete a certain outcome within a
limited time and with limited resources.
- Performing day-to-day, core operations.
- Medium to low technical specialization.
- Still a high level of coordination needed.
• Lean production, removal of „waste“ • Minimum staffing, multitasking, multi-machine operation, repetitive short cycle work • Powerful first line supervision • Conventional hierarchy
• Empowerment – giving employees more
authority and decision making responsibility.
• It fosters job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, organizational citizenship
behavior and job performance.
• Power should be put where needed.
• People are intrinsically motivated by power
• Empowered individuals have a strong sense
of self-efficacy (the feeling of „making things
• Requires management tolerance.